Blackwell v. Bush

Ironically enough, my first encounter with Curtis Sittenfeld’s fiction was the short story “Gender Studies” in the New Yorkerknowing nothing but her name, I initially assumed she was a man. After reading the story, told from the close third-person point of view of a liberal woman who has a one-night stand with her Trump-supporting airport-shuttle driver, a man having captured a female perspective with such accurate nuance boggled my mind. I could not believe a man had written it. I turned out to be right. (Her full name apparently being Elizabeth Curtis Sittenfeld, one wonders if using her male-sounding middle name was to overcome publishers’ implicit biases against women.)

In her third novel, American Wife (2008), Sittenfeld boldly tackles the first-person perspective of a First Lady based on the figure of Laura Bush. Sittenfeld’s First Lady is named Alice Lindgren, and only the final of the book’s four parts takes place after she’s become First Lady.

Part I: 1272 Amity Lane:
The first part of the novel describes Alice Lindgren’s childhood, growing up middle-class in the small town of Riley, Wisconsin. She’s very close with her father’s mother, who lives with them. Her grandmother goes to visit her close friend, Dr. Gladys Wycomb, in Chicago, twice a year. When Alice is a teenager, her grandmother takes her on one of these trips with her to see the city, and one night when Gladys and her grandmother set her up on a date with someone, she ends up getting sick and coming home early, catching her grandmother and Dr. Wycomb kissing, though they don’t know she saw them.

Back at school, she has a crush on Andrew Imhof, whom her best friend Dena dated for four years (but whom Dena pretty much originally stole from Alice in the first place). They get in a fight about it, causing Alice to drive by herself instead of with Dena to a party where she’s meeting Andrew, when she ends up getting in a collision with Andrew himself, killing him. In her grief, she goes to the Imhofs’ farm to apologize, and only Andrew’s brother Pete is there, whom she ends up sleeping with several times until he eventually coerces her to give him a blow job, then calls her a “whore” for doing so. She ends up pregnant, and her grandmother, without telling her parents, arranges for Dr. Wycomb to give her an abortion.

Part II: 3859 Sproule Street:
The second section jumps ahead to when Alice is 31, working as a librarian at an elementary school in Madison. She’s still friends with Dena, who, one summer when Alice is making papier-mâché characters of children’s book characters to decorate the school library with, forces her to come to a party where Charlie Blackwell will be. Charlie is the son of the former governor of Wisconsin, loaded from the family business (Blackwell Meats), and gearing up for his own run for Congress. Charlie’s uninterested in Dena and is instead taken with Alice, whom he first meets at the party when he comes upon her reading a children’s book to someone’s kid. She turns down his request for a date, but he follows her home, ends up coming in, and loves her papier-mâché characters, which no one else has seen, and they end up talking, connecting, and making out. Because of Dena, Alice is still reluctant to date him, but he invites her to a speech he’s making, where she meets Hank, the force channeling Charlie’s charisma into a viable political career. Then they do start dating. When Alice tells Dena, Dena’s so angry she won’t be her friend anymore, thinking the situation is a repeat of when Alice liked Andrew after he broke up with her.

The day before she met Charlie, Alice bought a house, but then she finds out her mother lost twenty grand when she invested it with none other than Pete Imhof, who simply claims the deal went bad when Alice confronts him. Her mother gives her a family brooch to sell to recoup some of the money, but when it’s appraised at a mere $90, Alice backs out of buying her house and gives her mother the money for the down payment (seven grand), claiming that’s how much she got for the brooch.

After she and Charlie have been dating six weeks, there’s a bad storm that Charlie drives to her apartment in, and they decide they should get married. She goes with him to meet his family at the fancy Halcyon compound, an enormous but strangely shabby place where the massive difference between their upbringings finally hits home. Late in the trip it emerges that they’re engaged, to which Priscilla Blackwell responds “‘What a clever girl you are.’” They get married with a small ceremony. Her grandmother is happy to hear Priscilla Blackwell might not approve of her. After Charlie loses his Congressional race, they move to a house outside Milwaukee.

Part III: 402 Maronee Drive:
One night when their daughter Ella is nine, Charlie doesn’t come home from work at Blackwell Meats when they’re supposed to go to a play, and when Alice goes to his parents’ house to look for him she ends up inviting their servant Miss Ruby to go with her. Charlie’s been discontent lately, having disagreements with his brothers at work, tense about his upcoming 20th reunion at Princeton. When she gets home from the play, Charlie is home, upset about some tainted meat their company might be responsible for; he wants to quit. He’s always talking about his legacy, which Alice hates. She meets up with her sister-in-law Jadey, who talks about wanting to have an affair. Then her grandmother goes into a coma; when she wakes up, Alice confides that she’s worried about Charlie’s drinking and his mid-life crisis. At a Blackwell dinner, Priscilla reprimands her for taking Miss Ruby out to the play. Her grandmother dies; at the funeral Dena’s mother tells her Dena is dating Pete Imhof. Charlie comes home one night and announces he’s gone in with an investment group who’s buying the Brewers. Alice has Miss Ruby and her family over for lunch, which Charlie interrupts, drunk. At the end-of-the-school year party at their house, a daughter of some friends finds Charlie’s porn magazines. The Brewers deal is finalized that night, and when Alice says she doesn’t want to go out to celebrate because they need to pack for the Princeton reunion the next day, he takes their babysitter out drinking and he and Alice have a big fight before leaving. At Princeton, Charlie drinks a lot and, after Alice finds out he’s done cocaine, she kisses their friend Joe Thayer, but stops when it’s not as pleasurable as she imagined. Back at home, she tells Charlie she wants a trial separation and takes Ella with her to her mother’s in Riley for a few weeks. While there, she has a phone conversation with Priscilla in which she learns everyone thinks Charlie is incompetent, and that Priscilla always wondered why she married Charlie, not the other way around, as Alice had always assumed. A mysterious lady Alice suspects is Dena gives Ella a plastic tiara. Ella and Alice are about to meet Charlie for a picnic when his brother calls and says Charlie got a DUI.

Alice doesn’t talk to Charlie for awhile, and then Jadey tells her he’s befriended a minister. When he does call, he says he’s paid for Jessica Sutton, Miss Ruby’s daughter, to go to Ella’s fancy school, and he’s started running. Alice talks to Ella about Andrew Imhof’s death. When Alice learns that Charlie’s been having Miss Ruby stay with him at his parents’ Milwaukee house, she finally caves and goes home, visiting Charlie at his office at the baseball stadium, where he shocks her by revealing he’s been born again and stopped drinking. Things go well for the next few years, and then Charlie successfully runs for governor, and then president, based largely on his religious appeal. Alice isn’t crazy about the religious stuff, but realizes he couldn’t have quit drinking without it (and some people believe she’s responsible for his being President due to causing him to quit drinking via leaving him). Jessica Sutton will become Alice’s chief of staff.  

Part IV: 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue:
One morning when Charlie and Alice first wake up and read the newspapers per their usual routine, they discuss Edgar Franklin, a protester of the Iraq War who’s gotten a lot of press since his son died in combat; he’s demanding to talk to the President, but so far Charlie has refused. Alice has refrained from interfering in Charlie’s administration not out of a belief that she should so much as being uncertain what the best course of action actually is, and she believes his reasons for invading Iraq are more complex than people make them seem. She was relieved when it looked like he was going to lose the presidential election, but now it’s four years after the invasion, nineteen months from the end of his administration. As she’s off for her day of First-Lady errands, Hank tells her that someone is claiming she had an abortion in October of ‘63; Alice thinks at first it must be Dena, but it turns out to be Gladys Wycomb, who’s 104. She wants Alice to convince Charlie not to go through with a pro-life Supreme Court nominee. Alice, who has publicly admitted to being pro-choice twice, without any elaboration, goes and talks to Gladys, trying to explain she doesn’t have that kind of influence. But Gladys will have none of it, and tells Alice off to her face, more than anyone ever has, for simply standing by.

Now that 31-year-old Jessica is Alice’s closest friend, Alice stops to see Dena, who lives with Pete Imhof; both are friendly (it was Dena who gave Ella the tiara) and, despite having had opportunities, neither have any inclination to talk to the media about her, which surprises Alice (many acquaintances have talked about her publicly, but the press has still not gotten much personal material on her). She can’t believe it’s possible that she really hasn’t done enough to stop all the carnage in the war, and wishes she didn’t have the pressure of the potential opportunity to do more; many people have written about her not having done enough to influence her husband. On the way home, she gets a call from Hank that Gladys Wycomb died, neutralizing the threat that her abortion will be revealed. Alice remembers how Charlie ended up picking the vice presidential candidate she was leaning toward over Hank’s pick and worries she’s at fault for the potential carnage caused by the VP’s influence, that Charlie won’t back out of the war because of how influential the VP has been, and that he’s foolish for not doing so.

Alice then declares she wants to talk to Edgar Franklin. He gets in her limo with her and eventually she agrees with him outright, saying she thinks it’s time to end the war and bring the troops home. We get a flashback to the night of the 2000 presidential election that ended up in the air, with Charlie believing he lost and admitting to her he was relieved to not have to do the work (he also wants to not finish the gubernatorial term he’d have to go back to). When she talks to Charlie on the phone, he is very angry about how she contradicted his position publicly with Edgar Franklin. They have to sit through a gala in her honor together that Ella, a Princeton graduate and Manhattan investment banker, comes for; Ella steadfastly agrees with her father’s position about the necessity of continuing the war. Afterward, Alice eats with Ella and debates whether it’s right to tell Ella about the abortion (Ella’s Christian like her father), and decides it would only make her imagine possible siblings, so she doesn’t.

After reading for awhile, Alice remembers that Pete Imhof gave her an envelope and sees it’s the apology note she went to the Imhof farm to give them, along with the pendant she’d left with it because Andrew had liked it. She finally talks to Charlie, who thinks she’s made him a laughingstock, and they end up having a more honest talk than they have since he’s been President about its difficulties, like the divergence in their beliefs. She says she’s only now figured out what she’s done wrong as First Lady. He insists, though not angrily anymore, that she’s not responsible for the casualties in the war. She knows she could have done more but that she’s married a man who would not “even be aware of [her] failings,” and that Charlie will forgive her if she doesn’t make a habit of acting that way.

That night, she dreams of Andrew Imhof, but instead of the one she always has where they are separated in a crowded room, this time they find each other, and she knows she could have had a life with him. She loves Charlie, but didn’t actually vote for him for President, and sometimes she thinks that she only married him—she’s not the one who gave him power. She’ll keep her vote against him a secret for now. The End.  

The four parts and their dramatic threads can be broken down more succinctly thus:
Part I: Alice’s childhood and adolescence: her grandmother’s relationship with Gladys Wycomb, Andrew Imhof’s death, and Alice’s abortion.
Part II: Alice’s meeting and courtship with Charlie and break with childhood best friend Dena.
Part III: Alice temporarily leaves Charlie, causing him to quit drinking and, indirectly, to undertake his ambitious political rise.
Part IV: A day in Charlie’s presidency: Gladys Wycomb threatens to out Alice’s abortion but then dies, Alice reconnects with Dena, and she breaks her promise to Charlie by publicly contradicting his beliefs.            

In a narrative that skips large chunks of time, Sittenfeld imbues tension in the overall arc by compressing the final section—the actual First Lady section—into a single day. The three preceding sections are spread out over longer periods of time. All four sections have, as they should, discrete narrative arcs, and by having the events covered in the first section (her abortion and everything that leads up to it) come directly into play in the final section, the discrete arcs become interlocking. (Before coming into play directly, the events of the first section come indirectly into play in the second section when Alice confesses them to Charlie to cross their final frontier of intimacy, and in the third when Charlie’s throwing them in her face shows how unbearable his discontent has made him to live with.) The first part’s events also come back in the fourth when Alice compares the tragedy of Andrew Imhof’s death, a death she caused, to the tragedy of the lives lost in the war, calling into question her culpability in the latter:

And yet if Andrew Imhof’s death was the singular tragedy of my life, if in some ways I have lived since then trying to compensate for my error, trying to be worthy of having survived—if his death was the worst thing I could have imagined, then what words are there, what space in my imagination, for the deaths of thousands of American troops and foreign civilians? If my critics are right that I share responsibility for Charlie’s administrative policies, including the decision to go to war, then Andrew Imhof’s death is the least of what I have caused; it is nothing, and utterly insignificant. What if I believed the consequences of the war were also my fault?

If the blood of these people were on my hands, if there were something I personally could have done to prevent such carnage, the loss of so many adults and teenagers and children who presumably wanted, just as I always have, to live an ordinary life—if I believed I could have made a difference but instead remained silent, then how could I bear it?

A big part of the conflict in the final section derives from Alice’s internal debate of how responsible she is for these lives. That she’s asking these questions at all makes her sympathetic; her conclusion might be more questionable. In the passage above, Alice seems to do something along the lines of acknowledging that she can’t face acknowledging her responsibility for these deaths, which would mean implicit acknowledgment that she is, in fact, responsible for them. But that Sittenfeld aptly captures intricate psychological maneuvers at work doesn’t mean she’s written a delusional, unlikable character here; quite the opposite. We won’t read Alice as unreliable because of how closely she’s examined the painful details of her past—if she was going to gloss over things, she’d need a lot more gloss. The primary evidence of this lack of gloss for me is the description of her sexual interlude with Pete Imhof. (Sittenfeld writes with a balder honesty about sex from the female perspective than pretty much any writer I’ve encountered; she’s like the antidote to Updike.) And so I sympathized with Alice’s inability to acknowledge the weight of what she’d done—or rather, hadn’t done—rather than meeting it with liberal scorn.

In terms of pacing, the first section covers the longest span of time (all of childhood and adolescence), while the second two seem to cover comparable spans of periods of several weeks (her courtship with Charlie and the period she leaves him, respectively) and then the final one shrinks to a single day. In Part I, we learn first that Alice’s grandmother has a secret relationship with Gladys Wycomb. Then, after Andrew’s death, she ends up with her own secret: the abortion. That Gladys Wycomb is the one to perform this abortion is the perfect intertwining of her and the grandmother’s secrets, and that intertwining the perfect resolution for first arc. In Part II, the courtship, the conflict is Alice reckoning with the divergence in her and Charlie’s upbringings, offering the final point of contrast before her life weaves away from ordinary. In Part III, we open in a scene on a day Charlie’s discontent with his job hits the fan, the same day, it so happens, that Alice makes a gesture toward Miss Ruby of the servant Sutton family that leads to her increasing influence over Jessica Sutton’s fate. We end with Charlie’s decision to stop drinking, the family reunited. In Part IV, the day we get, we get from beginning to end: from Alice’s waking up and reading the news with Charlie (discussing precisely the story she’ll end up interfering with later in the day) to the climactic fight she has with him at day’s end; the day is bookended with them physically together, and progresses through a series of more and less confrontational meetings: with Gladys Wycomb, with Dena and Pete, with Edgar Franklin, with Ella, and finally with Charlie himself as she confronts the burden of the role she’s been thrust into.  

Through the figure of Dena, Sittenfeld shows in a concrete way what Alice has lost by being with Charlie and entering his upper-class world: a connection to her more ordinary roots. In the final section, Alice’s reconnecting with Dena would then seem to indicate that she’s retaken something of her former self, thus providing a concrete impetus for her to realize, on this day of all days, that she could be acting differently as First Lady.

Aside from varying the time spans in the different parts, another way Sittenfeld imbues tension in such a long-ranging narrative is using the retrospective perspective to mention future events that pique the reader’s interest, and by contrasting the quaintness of past times with what we know is to come, like when she observes the meager crowds at the events for Charlie’s early Congressional run. By the fourth part, this perspective allows her to give us flashbacks of scenes that didn’t happen on the one day the part’s occurring.

Sittenfeld has used a lot of historical detail here, but at the same time she’s changed some basics: the Blackwells being from Wisconsin instead of Texas, into meats instead of oil, alums of Princeton instead of Yale. Another instance is the car wreck that kills Andrew Imhof—Laura Bush really did get in a car accident when she was seventeen that killed one of her classmates, though she was not alone in the car as Alice is in the novel. But there has been speculation about whether the classmate Laura Bush killed was her boyfriend or just a “close friend,” and Sittenfeld takes maximum dramatic advantage of this possibility with a powerful throughline and ending: the alternate life Alice might have had with Andrew. In real life, Laura Bush may or may not have become First Lady if she hadn’t gotten in that fatal accident; in Sittenfeld’s narrative it seems highly likely, especially with the conclusion, that Alice would have married Andrew if he hadn’t died, and led a happy ordinary life. We’re left to wonder about a chain of impacts and consequences that no doubt does have its parallel manifestation in the real world: if Alice marries Andrew and doesn’t marry Charlie, perhaps then Charlie is never driven to quit drinking and become President, and the Iraq War doesn’t happen, and then god knows where we’d be today…

Sittenfeld’s treatment of Alice is like a reading-between-the-lines of fawning biographies and news stories; Laura Bush is quoted as saying the accident when she was 17 caused her to lose her faith “for many, many years”; in Sittenfeld’s story, she’s never regained her faith, but the populace assumes she shares her husband’s. Her beliefs diverge from her husband’s much more significantly than her husband’s campaign team will ever allow to be revealed. Sittenfeld’s taken a pile of material with a dearth of substance and revealed a story behind that lack of substance that, though it can never be verified, seems entirely plausible.

A couple of glaring adjustments to the historical record here are that Charlie’s father himself was never President, and that Alice and Charlie only have one daughter. The conflict with this daughter in the novel is not that she’s a rebellious seeker of pleasure, as per the reputation of the Bush twins, but rather that Alice ends up producing a carbon copy of Charlie from whom privilege has eradicated any capacity for empathy. Fortunately, Alice has established for herself a liberal surrogate daughter in Jessica Sutton, as Ella calls her out for toward the novel’s end:

“No, I’m totally not threatened by this woman who’s close to my own age, who you spend all your time with and like better than me. Not one little bit!”

In this regard it seems like Alice almost gets to have her cake and eat it too; her relationship with Ella seems warm despite Alice’s reliance on Jessica and the divergence in their beliefs. This feels similar to her conclusion about whether she’s done enough as First Lady, how culpable she is for the war casualties. 

It seems possible that the change from meat to oil for the Bush-based clan could have been inspired by a famous Texas Ranger, Nolan Ryan, of the baseball team that George W. actually owned, now running Nolan Ryan’s Beef. And while she didn’t make the George H.W. stand-in a President, she does seem to capture a realistic characteristic of his in his “sentimental streak,” though Alice’s attitude toward it is one of the ways her perspective seems conveniently myopic:

…there was nothing else in the world as endearing to me as Harold Blackwell’s sentimental streak. It was enough to make me wonder if there were other elected officials I was as wrong about as I’d been about him. Were there men (and it would be primarily men) who, instead of creating personas that were fakely righteous and honorable, were the opposite: fakely cruel, fakely callous? Men who, through the distortion of the media or a perceived pressure to act a certain way, sublimated, at least in public, their own decency and kindness?

The juvenile competitive spirit Sittenfeld captures among the Blackwell brothers also rings entirely true and provides some critical insight into the general nature of politicians, driven to prestigious roles out of a petty desire to prove themselves and be perceived as better than others rather than to actually help others. The Blackwell brothers try to one-up one another about stupid, irrelevant things; this is the nature of the stubbornness and determination that takes them so far. The Halcyon compound that is their pride and joy also has an interesting detail: it only has one toilet, which doesn’t work very well, to accommodate eighteen people, a fact the Blackwells take perverse pride in. This seems potentially symbolic of an old world order crumbling, falling apart; despite George H.W. referring to the “new world order” ushered in during his presidency, political nepotism is hardly new, and hardly eradicated.

The current presidential era would seem to indicate that now more than ever we need the female perspective in politics. Ultimately Alice’s judgment of her husband, though tempered, seems to be that he wasn’t worthy of the job in the first place, and that he’s done significant damage in the role. There’s something somewhat disheartening about her apparent conclusion that she should have done more, but that really, she can’t. But she has at least borne witness to his foolishness, especially when she compares his insistence on continuing the war to the time she tried to use the restroom in an unfamiliar country club, walked past it, but didn’t turn around when she realized her mistake for fear of revealing to others that she was ignorant and didn’t belong there.

Alice, it seems, becomes the symbol for all American wives, not just ones married to Presidents—positioned to form the most accurate perspective on their husbands, sometimes able to influence them, perhaps, more often, not. Her realization at the end that she has sacrificed her ideals and loved someone else all along might symbolize that ultimately all wives wind up in a position they don’t really want to be in—subservient, identities subsumed. In her review of the novel for the New York Times, Joyce Carol Oates begins by asking “Is there a distinctly American experience?” and concludes that the novel shows how “[t]he ideal American wife can only retreat into a kind of female solace of opacity.” 

-SCR 

Those Knockout Neapolitan Novels Part 3: Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay

Book 1 of Elena Ferrante’s Neapolitan Novels, My Brilliant Friend, first covers Lila and Lenù’s childhood, which culminates in the decision that defines the diverging paths their lives take: Elena getting to advance to middle school while Lila goes to work for her family in the shoe shop. It then covers adolescence, which involves Elena’s relationship with Antonio and culminates with Lila’s wedding at the age of sixteen to the wealthy neighborhood grocer Stefano Caracci.

Book 2, The Story of a New Name, covers the struggles in Lila’s marriage, her affair with Nino Sarratore, having his son (or so she believes) before leaving Stefano and moving into an apartment in a poor neighborhood with Enzo and going to work at a salami factory while Nino vanishes. Concurrently, Elena graduates from college, has a novel published, and is about to get married to the son of an important well-connected family.

Book 3, Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay, begins with another leap ahead in time, this time to the last time Elena saw Lila, in 2005, when they come upon a crowd looking at a dead body that turns out to be Michele’s “ex-wife,” Gigliola Spagnuolo. Lila tells Lenù never to write about her, Lila, and that if she does, she’ll find the files on her computer and delete them.

We then pick up from Book 2’s end with Nino’s appearance at Elena’s first reading for her novel at the bookstore in Milan. After Elena signs some books, Adele invites Nino to dinner with them—with her and Elena and her assistant Tarratano—and he accepts. On the way, he makes a comment to Elena that Lila “was made badly…even when it comes to sex.” Elena is contemplating seducing him when Adele announces she has a surprise: Pietro has come, and has accepted a job as a professor in Florence, where they’ll move. Elena encounters both good and bad reviews of her book; people keep focusing on “the dirty pages” and she realizes that’s the main reason the book is selling well. She travels to give more readings and Adele sends Tarratano with her, who encourages her not to be apologetic about the book’s risqué passages, shortly before he creepily tries to sleep with her.

At a university in Milan, Elena ends up skipping her reading after following some students to some sort of demonstration, and she sees a girl there nursing her baby, then runs into her old boyfriend Franco Mari, then Pietro’s sister Mariarosa, who invites her to stay with her, which Elena accepts. Sylvia, the girl with the baby, also lives with Mariarosa, along with an older painter. They discuss revolution and Elena finds out Silvia’s baby, whom she feels surprisingly maternal toward, is Nino’s. Franco insults her novel as frivolous for the times. That night she is disgusted when the older painter tries to sleep with her. Back in Naples, Pietro comes to meet her parents, who are angry about his decision to not get married in the church and only have a civil ceremony, but the visit is relatively successful and her family takes to Pietro. They even go out to eat at a restaurant, where her brothers start a fight with a table of people they think are making fun of the way Pietro looks.

Adele helps get them an apartment in Florence and some new clothes. Pasquale and Enzo show up outside her parents’ place one night and say Lila wants to see her. At her apartment outside the neighborhood, Lila receives Elena and recounts what she’s been going through at the salami factory since she burned The Blue Fairy in the courtyard bonfire at the end of Book 2. She’s been anxious and having trouble sleeping. She helps Enzo (whom she’s not sleeping with) study for a correspondence course related to computers. The men she works with at the factory grope and harass her, but when she goes to Bruno to complain, he tells her not to make trouble for him. Then, a bit later, he comes on to her, but she manages to rebuff him. She does computer diagrams with Enzo but won’t tell him of the bad conditions at her job. Then Pasquale starts hanging out with them regularly and telling them about his Communist activities fighting the Fascists, who are headed in the old neighborhood by Gino, the pharmacist’s son.

One day Pasquale brings Lila’s mother Nunzia over, but it doesn’t go well, Nunzia blaming Lila for the family’s downfall. Pasquale gets Lila to go to a couple of Communist meetings, at one of which is Nadia, Professor Galiani’s daughter. She convinces Lila to speak, and Lila tells everyone in vivid detail about the horrible conditions at the salami factory. A few days later, someone from the meeting is outside the gates at the factory and gives Lila a pamphlet with everything she described at the meeting written up in it. She denies her involvement to her coworkers and to Bruno, but gets harassed by the guard Filippo. Her conditions at work worsen and her heart starts pounding in her throat and she starts seeing figures and feels her mind collapsing. Then Gino and the fascists show up to beat up the communists outside the factory gate and Gino recognizes her.

Unable to find Pasquale, Lila goes to Professor Galiani’s to find Nadia to tell them to stop their activities. She talks to the professor awhile before Nadia shows up with Pasquale. Gino and the fascists show up at the gate again and just as Gino is about to beat Lila up, Pasquale pulls up and intervenes. A small group of people at the factory get together with Lila and make a list of demands to improve their working conditions. At a meeting with Nadia and Pasquale, Lila’s dissolving sickness comes on and Armando (a doctor) examines her and says she has a murmur and needs to see a cardiologist, but she refuses. That night, afraid of what her mind will do while she’s alone, she asks to sleep with Enzo.

The next day, when Lila goes to take Bruno the list of demands, Michele Solara is in his office. He tells her about the neighborhood and about how they’ve expanded and now Stefano’s practically ruined. He goes on about all the impressive stuff Lila’s done before making some crude remarks about her character that induce her to try to attack him; he says she doesn’t work for Saccavo, she works for him, since Saccavo is in debt to the Solaras. Bruno calls her back in after he’s seen the list of demands to yell at her, and she quits. That’s when she sent Enzo and Pasquale for Elena. They talk about sex, Lila saying it was always unpleasant for her and Elena saying it’s not like that for her, and Lila referencing Elena’s book for the first time, saying it must be like that for her if she wrote those things. Lila says she wants to move back to the old neighborhood.

Before Elena leaves for Florence to get married, she tries to do everything she can for Lila, including getting her to a cardiologist, who says she’s fine but might need a neurologist, who says her body needs rest, and then they both go get birth control pills. Elena also gets Pietro to get a lawyer to get Bruno to pay Lila what he owes her, and a potential job connection for Enzo who turns out to be impressed by the diagramming Lila made him do. Adele convinces Elena to write a newspaper article about the factory conditions that’s well received. Elena finds an apartment for Lila in the neighborhood and finds out Michele is moving to a richer one, which she thinks bodes well. She goes to try to talk to him at his house but only Gigliola is there, who winds up opening up to her about how Michele sleeps around and mistreats her and how he’s always been in love with Lila. Then Elena goes to see Alfonso, who’s managing the fancy shoe shop for the Solaras that Lila used to; he tells her he’s marrying Marisa, who’s pregnant, because Michele wants him to—but that he’s actually queer.

Back in the neighborhood, Lila and Elena run into all the people they know, including Melina, who is watching Stefano’s daughter that he had with Ada (Melina’s daughter). Melina remarks that Gennaro looks just like Ada’s daughter and that they both look just like Stefano; Lila realizes it’s true and that Gennaro isn’t Nino’s. Elena goes to say goodbye to Professor Galiani, who tells her to bring Lila, and there they run into Nadia and Pasquale, who give Elena shit for helping Lila out with her bourgeois connections and abandoning everyone else involved in the struggle. Galiani finally arrives and is rude to Elena but praises Lila. When they part, Lila tells Elena she expects great things from her and loves her, but Elena is bitter about how she seems ungrateful for what she did for her, and how she still feels inferior to her, and secretly wishes Lila would become ill and die.

For years after Elena leaves Naples, she and Lila only talk on the phone. Elena marries Pietro, whom she thought would be okay waiting to have children so she can write, but he isn’t, and she becomes pregnant the first night they’re married—the first night they sleep together, during which Elena discovers that sex with him is painful and unsatisfying. Lila calls after she hears from Elena’s mother that she’s pregnant and says she thought Elena was on the Pill so she could write her book; Lila says she never wants to be pregnant again (“she seemed ready to consider any possible joy I found in motherhood a betrayal”). When Elena wins a prize for her book, Lila insults a pompous quote from her speech that appeared in the paper. The pregnancy goes well until Elena gets a pain in her buttocks that makes her start to limp (like her mother!). After the birth, when she tells Lila it was wonderful, Lila responds, “‘Each of us narrates our life as it suits us.’”

The baby, Adele, or Dede, won’t breastfeed or sleep well, and Pietro is utterly unhelpful, staying in his study until late. Lila calls at the moments Elena’s “particularly desperate” and Elena lies and acts like everything is fine, though she wants to yell at Lila for cursing her. As things deteriorate, Pietro finally gets Adele to come, who hires Clelia to help, against Pietro’s wishes. He takes his mounting frustrations at the university, where he’s not respected, out on his mother and tells his wife nothing. She realizes Pietro is considered dull, agrees with that assessment, and won’t sleep with him because she doesn’t want to get pregnant again. He makes an effort and brings some guests home to dinner that she flirts with and then even starts meeting with one (Mario), and Dede, though only two years old, threatens to tell Pietro. She can’t get her writing going again and considers marriage a prison and finds Pietro’s sister Mariarosa’s liberated tendencies enthralling. Eventually she starts messing around with Mario, but when he tries to get her to give him a blow job, she rushes home and makes love with Pietro and gets pregnant again.

She calls her mother and gets her to come help, and starts calling Lila every day to get her imagination going for her writing. Lila’s most enthusiastic subject is Enzo’s work with computers, and she’s gotten hired on to work as his assistant at IBM, trying to make the machine do things people do by punching diagrams of holes in cards. She says they’re rich now. She reports beatings in the neighborhood between the communists and fascists and speculates that Manuela Solara (Michele and Marcello’s mother) is the one who murdered Don Achille because she had the most to gain, taking over his loan shark business when he died. Elena tries to write that story as a novel, and to it finish before the baby is born. When she finally sends the manuscript to Adele, her mother-in-law calls and tells her it isn’t publishable the same day Elena later goes into labor. She then calls Lila and asks her to read the manuscript without mentioning the birth. Her mother leaves and Elena fires Clelia. Lila calls after reading the manuscript saying that she doesn’t know how to read books anymore, and when Elena demands she be honest, Lila starts sobbing and says it’s an ugly book and the first one was too and they aren’t her.

Abandoning the manuscript, Elena devotes herself to motherhood; the first baby prepared her, and the second baby, named Elsa after her sister Elise (instead of after her mother, which is part of why her mother left), is good—but she goes on the Pill. Pietro is sick from the stress of working late and not sleeping. She realizes he wants a subservient wife who will just listen to him and not speak, the opposite of his mother and sister, but she’s not driven toward others this time. Mariarosa visits, and hanging out with her and her friends inspires Elena to read some feminist tracts. She’s wants to talk about them with Lila but can’t in the face of her hard news from the neighborhood, and knows Lila would think them ridiculous. Elena talks with Mariarosa more, angering Pietro, who is contemptuous of feminism; one night she insults him and he slaps her in front of Dede. He leaves the house until five in the morning, and she’s relieved he’s come back and he says he doesn’t deserve her. One day Pasquale and Nadia unexpectedly stop by and spend the night, and are generally rude. She hears from Mariarosa that Franco’s been attacked by fascists and lost his eye, but when she goes to visit he doesn’t want to see her. She also visits Sylvia, who was also attacked with him, and raped. Her son Mirko resembles Nino.

Two months after Pasquale’s visit, Elena gets a call from Carmen—Pasquale’s disappeared and the police are looking for him. When Elena’s getting ready to leave on vacation, Lila calls and asks her to take Gennaro; Elena resists but gives in. Enzo brings him and when he’s a replica of Stefano, Elena is pleased Nino left Lila nothing. Enzo stays the night and talks about how he and Lila have moved to an even bigger company and are making even more money. Enzo tells her Michele has never stopped making Lila offers to work for him, and how Gennaro disappeared after school one day and wouldn’t answer questions about what happened when he turned up. Michele offered Lila a lot of money to be head tech of a System 3 computer he’s getting, and he also got Alfonso’s wife Marisa pregnant. When she asks Lila why she didn’t tell her any of this, Lila is cold and says she left and it’s none of her business, they’re too crude for her.

Elena goes to the beach with the three children while Pietro stays home and works; once she catches Dede and Genarro naked together and examining each other, and debates what to do but winds up scolding them. She wonders if she was ever attracted to Lila but pushes such questions away. Pietro shows her the news in the paper that two men and a woman broke into the salami factory and killed Bruno Saccavo. Gino’s also been shot and killed, and Elena starts to think Lila might be behind it. Awhile after she sends Gennaro back to Lila, Lila calls with the news that she’s head of Michele’s IBM data-processing center. When Elena says she can’t believe Lila gave in, Lila brings up Elena’s sister. Elena has to call her mother to learn that her sister Elisa is engaged to Marcello Solara, who’s also arranged jobs of a suspicious variety for her brothers. Elena takes her family to Naples for the first time since she’s been married.

When she arrives, she goes to the apartment where her sister lives with Marcello and eventually confesses to her sister, despite her sister’s excessive happiness, that she disapproves of the relationship. Then everyone comes over for a surprise party, and, much to Elena’s dismay, Marcello has their luggage brought from their hotel so they can stay with them. Gigliola shows up with her children and Manuela Solara comes; it’s her 60th birthday. Lila comes and it’s the first time that they’ve seen each other since before her marriage (they’re 30 years old), but they barely speak. Michele gives a long speech that winds around to praising Lila (and comparing her to his mother). He also gives Elena a German translation of her novel that she didn’t know existed from Antonio. Pietro spends a long time talking to Lila at dinner, then disparages her later to Elena, because he’s threatened by her, Elena thinks. They visit Michele’s IBM center and Lila tells Elena that Nino is back in Naples teaching. Stefano was arrested for having stolen goods and now Lila has to give him money, so she thinks it’s good she left him. She also talks about a comment Alfonso made about wanting to be a woman like her if he were a woman, and she talks about disappearing. Elena feels her life is motionless while Lila has complete freedom, and imagines Lila will get Nino to divorce his wife.

When she gets back to Florence, she fights with Pietro over an incident with a student and hangs out with feminists; Mariarosa encourages her to write about a perspective on men and women that echoes what Lila said about Alfonso saying he would be her if he were a woman—that Franco was only with her to mold her in the image of what he would be like as a woman. She starts writing about “the invention of woman by men, mixing the ancient and modern worlds.” Then one day, Pietro brings home Nino, whom he encountered in the course of work at the university. Nino takes them out to a restaurant and charms the family. He tells Pietro he needs to give Elena time to write. He says he’ll be back in a month, and Elena, encouraged, gets a draft done and gives it to him the next time they go out to dinner (with his wife and son), and he calls the next morning praising it before she goes out shopping with his wife. Later, Nino comes and stays with them for ten days; near the end of his visit he starts goading and insulting Pietro, causing Pietro to take a sleeping pill and go to bed early, and Elena to finally sleep with Nino.

She and Nino start calling each other constantly, and arrange to see each other in her apartment in Florence while she leaves Pietro at the beach with the children. She soon says she’s ready to tell Pietro and leave him, on the condition that Nino leave his wife, but Nino wavers, causing her to say it’s over between them. Pietro catches her in a lie and brings up her flirting with the men he brought home years ago, then asks if there’s anything between her and Nino, and she shouts that she has no choice but to go now. But she stays. Then one day shegets Nino’s wife on the phone instead of him and she yells at Elena, so Elena knows Nino has told her. He presses her to go to a conference with him, and she confesses to Pietro that they’re lovers, and Pietro makes her tell the children whom she’s leaving him for. He makes them believe that if she goes to the conference she’ll never come back, and they’re so upset she promises them she won’t go, but then she does. Right before she’s about to leave, Lila calls saying first that Manuela Solara has been murdered and then that she’s going to send Gennaro to her because of the bad climate in the neighborhood. When Elena tells her she can’t because she’s leaving her husband for Nino, Lila contemptuously declares she’s a fool. Elena gets on a plane for the first time to go to France for the conference with Nino. The end. For now. 

In this installment’s opening chapter, Lila’s reference to her ability to infiltrate Elena’s computer files foreshadows the turn in her career path that will once again give her the upper hand in their shifting power dynamic. Their power struggle continues in the third installment, with Elena being able to use her connections to help Lila at her lowest point, losing her mind from the pressure to do something about the poor conditions at the salami factory. Elena makes the connection explicit:

In the past Lila had opened the miraculous drawer of the grocery store and had bought me everything, especially books. Now I opened my drawers and paid her back, hoping that she would feel safe, as I now did.

This period is the buildup to Elena finally getting to escape Naples, which in and of itself elevates her significantly above Lila in their struggle, and neatly coincides with the point Lila returns to the neighborhood. (Of course, Elena’s leaving and Lila’s staying are, according to the title, the defining events of this installment.) Elena gets married roughly halfway through the book, in chapter 62, at the same time Lila’s moved back to the neighborhood, is regaining her footing, and is starting to undo some of the damage done in her absence by the Solaras. Elena’s marriage marks the definitive point of separation for them even more than Lila’s did:

In Milan, encouraged by Adele, I bought a cream-colored suit for the wedding, it looked good on me, the jacket was fitted, the skirt short. When I tried it on I thought of Lila, of her gaudy wedding dress, of the photograph that the dressmaker had displayed in the shop window on the Rettifilo, and the contrast made me feel definitively different. Her wedding, mine: worlds now far apart.

While Lila’s wedding/marriage was the climax of the first installment, Elena’s is the center of the third. The arc of this installment is the buildup to and the subsequent letdown of this major event. Right before Elena leaves for Florence, she gets two challenges to the potential of her new life and its connections when she takes Lila with her to say goodbye to Professor Galiani. While there, Elena first comes under attack from Pasquale and Nadia for how she “resolved” the Saccavo factory situation by calling her connections (with Lila saying they’re right), and then Professor Galiani essentially ignores Elena and says nothing about her book while effusively complimenting the pages Lila wrote for their communist meeting about the factory that Nadia left lying around. Here, in the site of a power reversal that happened in the previous book—the party where Elena felt at home and Lila felt alienated—the power is reversed again when Professor Galiani seems to be pointing out implicitly that everything Elena has actually originates with Lila—the pages about the factory Lila wrote are the source material for Elena’s article in the newspaper about it; Professor Galiani, being one of the only ones to see both source material and article, would be able to tell how she’d taken it from Lila. But then when they leave her apartment, Lila tries to amend this reversal by saying Professor Galiani treated Elena poorly like that out of jealousy for Elena’s recent success and increasing prominence. Kind of like how when Lila is again in a position of power over Elena—issuing an opinion on her second book manuscript—she subverts it by saying Elena is the one who has to do what she couldn’t.

Of course, inevitably, leaving Naples is not the saving grace it was supposed to be. The lesson of the fulfillment of Elena’s lifelong desire is definitely to be careful what you wish for. What enabled Elena’s success and the possibility of her leaving is then debilitated by the act of her leaving—separated from Lila, her imagination is not sufficiently sparked for her writing. Even before the wedding happens, Elena is at odds with Pietro over having children, and motherhood is the struggle that Lila predicted (though of course Elena will never admit this to Lila). As Elena descends in the arc of her success, failing to replicate her early intellectual accomplishments as motherhood overwhelms her, Lila ascends in her arc, getting a job under Enzo working with computers and eventually getting paid even more than Enzo under Michele, whom she claims to be using rather than the other way around. Elena learns of Lila’s apparent capitulation to the Solaras at the same time she learns of her own family’s entrenchment with them—not only is her sister engaged to Marcello, but her brothers are now working for them. Elena hasn’t escaped the neighborhood so thoroughly after all.  

Book 3 begins and ends with Elena in the company of Nino, after her first reading in the bookstore at the beginning, and on a plane for the first time leaving her family to go to a conference with him at the end. This volume concludes with an objective correlative description of the effect of Nino on her life:

At times I had the impression that the floor under my feet—the only surface I could count on—was trembling.

Following the pattern established at the beginning of the first book, Elena follows in Lila’s footsteps by ruining herself and her marriage to be with Nino. It’s interesting to map the consequences of Elena’s infidelities in the narrative: fooling around with Mario drives her back into Pietro’s arms, resulting in the unwanted pregnancy of her second child, while her flirtation with and desire for Nino drives her to complete her first successful piece of writing in a decade. The subject matter of that writing project makes Nino’s influence even more ironic: the invention of woman by man. Elena thought Franco trying to make her more cultured in college was the primary example of this phenomenon in her own life, but many of the major events in her life have occurred because of men: her first novel would not have been published without her engagement to Pietro; she caved to Pietro’s wishes not to put off having a child; when she was able to put him off from having more children, Mario’s influence led her to conceive Elsa; and she only finished her second book because of the motivation of Nino. While the ostensible point of this entire four-volume narrative is to show how she would not be who she is without Lila, she’s also very much a woman invented by men.

A big moment for Elena and Lila’s relationship occurs when Lila summons Elena the night she quits the salami factory. Among other things, Lila confides details about her sex life, specifically that she’s never gotten pleasure from sex, not even with Nino. Elena refuses to return this confidence, though her novel has essentially already returned that confidence for her. But Pietro turning out to be a terrible lover almost seems like implicit revenge for this potential rejection of Lila, Elena’s wedding night offering its own parallel violence to Lila’s:

As soon as we got to our apartment and closed the door we began to make love. At first it was very pleasurable, but the day reserved for me yet another surprising fact. Antonio, my first boyfriend, when he rubbed against me was quick and intense; Franco made great efforts to contain himself but at a certain point he pulled away with a gasp, or when he had a condom stopped suddenly and seemed to become heavier, crushing me under his weight and laughing in my ear. Pietro, on the other hand, strained for a time that seemed endless. His thrusting was deliberate, violent, so that the initial pleasure slowly diminished, overwhelmed by the monotonous insistence and the hurt I felt in my stomach. He was covered with sweat from his long exertions, maybe from suffering, and when I saw his damp face and neck, touched his wet back, desire disappeared completely. But he didn’t realize it, he continued to withdraw and then sink into me forcefully, rhythmically, without stopping. I didn’t know what to do. I caressed him, I whispered words of love, and yet I hoped that he would stop. When he exploded with a roar and collapsed, finally exhausted, I was content, even though I was hurting and unsatisfied.

In light of Nino’s comment that Lila is “made badly” when it comes to sex, Lila’s confession that she’s never derived sexual pleasure from her experiences with men raises the possibility that she might be more attracted to women. While the scene near the climax of the first book when Elena bathes Lila on the morning of her wedding day is rife with homoerotic undertones, Elena seems to consider the topic most directly here in the third book when she comes upon her daughter and Lila’s son naked and examining each other.

With difficulty I reached the point of asking myself: had she and I ever touched each other? Had I ever wished to, as a child, as a girl, as an adult? And her? I hovered on the edge of those questions for a long time. I answered slowly: I don’t know, I don’t want to know. And then I admitted that there had been a kind of admiration for her body, maybe that, yes, but I ruled out anything ever happening between us. Too much fear, if we had been seen we would have been beaten to death.

She dismisses the possibility that they would have done anything because of the repercussions, not because the desire wasn’t there…

So now we wait to see just how well Elena’s choice or Nino over her family will turn out, and how accurate Lila’s assessment that Elena is a fool will be. Likely fairly accurate it would seem…

-SCR

 

Those Knockout Neapolitan Novels Part 2: The Story of A New Name

Book 1 of Elena Ferrante’s Neapolitan Novels concluded with the Solara brothers barging in on Lila’s wedding to Stefano Carracci, the original shoes that Lila designed and made and sold to Stefano on Marcello’s feet. Book 2 begins with a first chapter that functions like a prologue, jumping ahead to a moment in 1966, then circling back to pick up right where we left off.

We open with Elena describing Lila giving her a box of her notebooks for safekeeping from Stefano; Elena reads them after swearing to Lila she won’t, admires them with jealousy, then eventually dumps them in a river. We then return to the wedding. After seeing the shoes on Marcello, Elena immediately realizes the marriage is essentially over. Elena feels the need to provoke a semi violent confrontation with Antonio over her behavior with Nino to match what Lila’s going through with Stefano, and tries to get Antonio to penetrate her after they leave the wedding, but he won’t since they’re not married. Lila is furious about the shoes and after the wedding Stefano confesses he made some kind of business deal with the Solaras because it was necessary to make money, and that Marcello asked for the shoes so they gave them to him as a kind of good-will gesture to seal the deal. This makes Lila even angrier, and on the night of their honeymoon she tells Stefano she doesn’t want him and curses him, until he eventually beats and rapes her.

Elena has her ups and downs as a student, skipping school altogether for a period after the wedding, believing it’s not worth it to go on after the failure of her piece to get published in the journal Nino suggested. Lila uses Stefano’s money to buy Elena’s books and Elena studies at their house when her grades dip again after she breaks up with Antonio, who was jealous of Nino and emasculated when Elena got Lila to go to the Solaras to try to get Antonio out of his army service. Elena’s still in love with Nino, who’s dating the daughter of her teacher, Professor Galiani, who one day invites Elena to a party; Lila accompanies her and they see Nino there. Elena feels far more comfortable with the students at the party than her friends in the neighborhood, but on the way home Lila mocks Elena mercilessly about the stuck-up crowd and how Elena sounds around them (out of jealousy really, since she didn’t go past elementary school and now works in her husband’s–really the Solaras’–shoe store in the rich neighborhood).

After working for a period at a bookstore, Elena eventually takes Lila up on her offer of paying Elena as an employee if Lila goes to Ischia on vacation, but only because Elena knows Nino is going there to study with his rich friend Bruno. They also go with Pinuccia, who’s married to Rino now and pregnant; Rino and Stefano visit on the weekends for the month of July, during which period Nino and Lila fall violently in love. Elena, who’s denied her feelings for Nino to Lila this whole time, is miserable in the midst of this development, and lets Nino’s creepy father Donato take her virginity on the beach after helping arrange for Nino and Lila to be able to spend the night together. When Michele Solara visits by surprise and sees Nino and Lila holding hands, resulting in a violent confrontation when Stefano shows up, they leave Ischia, and Elena and Lila don’t see each other for over a year.

When Elena graduates from high school and is getting ready to leave for a university in Pisa to study on scholarship (finally getting out of not just the neighborhood, but Naples), she goes to see Lila where she works at the shoe store in the rich neighborhood. Lila congratulates Elena on getting to leave, and then calls Nino out from where he’s hiding; they’ve been seeing each other at the store on the sly. Elena leaves for Pisa, where she gets a rich boyfriend, Franco Mari, who shows her some of the more cultured ways of the world, and everything that happens to Lila during this time, Elena finds out later: Lila gets pregnant by Nino, leaves Stefano and gets an apartment with Nino, where they live for 23 days until he gets annoyed by the way she’s abrasive when they’re in public and how she’s interfering with his studying, and leaves and doesn’t come back. Then Enzo shows up at her apartment after Antonio, who now works as hired muscle for the Solaras after being discharged from the army, finds Lila at Stefano’s/the Solaras’ behest. She goes back to Stefano and has the baby (whom she names Rino), and while she tells Stefano several times that the baby isn’t his, he refuses to believe it.

The Solaras start to essentially rip off Stefano and Fernando and Rino when they get a different shoe factory to manufacture Lila’s original design and these sell better than the shoes Fernando and Rino make in their factory. Then Lila finds out that Stefano’s been sleeping with Antonio’s sister Ada since before Lila got with Nino, and after she gets pregnant Ada eventually gets more demanding, showing up at the house, etc., until Stefano tells Lila he’s moving her to a house that Michele Solara claimed to have bought for her to move into with him when he tried to get her to leave Stefano, and she realizes her husband has sold her. She leaves with Enzo and they get a cheap place in a different bad neighborhood, and though Enzo loves her, she tells him she won’t sleep with him.

Meanwhile, Elena’s first boyfriend Franco gets kicked out of school for failing an exam, and she gets mocked for being from Naples and for being easy, but then a new guy, Pietro, starts pursuing her whom she eventually finds out is a university professor’s son. Meeting his family, she realizes she’ll always be fundamentally different from people who grew up with the advantage of a cultured upbringing. She and Pietro work on their lit theses together, but the professors treat Pietro with more respect. When they graduate, Elena gives Pietro as a gift the manuscript of her novel, generated from her writing about the episode of Donato Sarratore taking her virginity. Pietro sends her a letter when she’s at home after graduating saying his mother Adele knows someone who wants to publish it. After Elena, stunned with joy at this fulfillment of her and Lila’s childhood dream, signs a contract that will actually pay her money for her book, Maestra Oliviero dies before she can tell her about it, and she gets a box of her old notebooks from one of Maestra Oliviero’s relatives. In one of these she finds the novel Lila wrote when she was ten, “The Blue Fairy,” with comments from Maestra Oliviero all over it about how good it is, which angers Elena since Maestra Oliviero dismissed it at the time and never said anything good about it to either of them. Rereading it, Elena realizes that it provided the core of her own novel.

Elena goes to find Lila to tell her what she’s learned, but when she gets to her new neighborhood she finds out that Lila is working in a salami factory owned by Nino’s friend Bruno’s family. She goes to the factory to find her, and sees her working in brutal conditions. Lila doesn’t seem to remember “The Blue Fairy” when Elena tells her about it, and after Elena gives her the copy of it she turns around and sees Lila burning it in the courtyard bonfire.

When Elena’s novel comes out, her parents seem proud, but no one from the neighborhood actually reads it. She gives her first public reading at a bookstore, and Pietro’s too busy to come. The Q&A doesn’t seem to be going terribly well when a young bearded man stands up and praises “the modernizing force” of her novel–Nino Sarratore. The End. 

The second installment continues the power struggle between Lila and Elena that the first book established. Book 1 ends with Lila at her high point–her fairytale wedding–with the seed of its undoing planted: Stefano giving away her shoes. Book 2 ends with Lila approaching a low point, evicted from the marriage that propelled her so far ahead of Elena in their power struggle in Book 1, she’s now performing slave labor at the salami factory. Not coincidentally, Lila approaches her low point as Elena approaches her high one, the publication of her novel, the fulfillment of that dream that she and Lila had planned to do together. Of course, Lila was the one who betrayed that plan first by writing “The Blue Fairy” (though she only did that because Elena was too busy studying for the school entrance exam she wasn’t getting to take); the power struggle dictates that Elena reciprocate, and at the end of Book 2 she’s back on top–for the moment.

Money and education continue to define the terms of the struggle, especially when Lila takes on Elena as a theoretical employee:

On the road to the beach [Lila] made me carry her bag, and once we were at the beach she sent me back twice, first to get her a scarf, then because she needed some nail scissors. When I gave signs of protest she nearly reminded me of the money she was giving me. She stopped in time, but not so that I didn’t understand: it was like when someone is about to hit you and then doesn’t.

Then, when Lila wins Nino, leaving Elena with the sickening consolation prize of Donato Sarratore, Elena again feels the sting of their struggle:

Instead, as we were returning to Nunzia after our violations, I couldn’t get away from the usual confused sense of disparity, the impression—recurrent in our story—that I was losing something and she was gaining. So occasionally I felt the need to even the score, to tell her how I had lost my virginity between sea and sky, at night, on the beach at the Maronti. … I realized that to tell her about me and my pleasure didn’t matter to me, I would tell my story only to induce her to tell hers and find out how much pleasure she had had with Nino and compare it with mine and feel—I hoped—in the lead. (emphasis mine)

When Elena helps Lila pull off the deceptions that enable Lila to spend the night with Nino, she does it partially as a result of the pressure of Lila’s paying her. Books and education, too, become a weapon in the war for the son of Sarratore, when Lila uses the books Professor Galiani let Elena borrow and impresses Nino with her conversation about them.

The box of Lila’s notebooks provided in the opening chapter is the perfect device for the narrator Elena to be able to provide, in detail, descriptions of what happens to Lila when Elena’s not there. It’s also an action/gesture that’s inherently related to the prologue of the first book (that is, of all the books), in which we learn that Lila in the present is trying to erase herself, and these books that we’re reading are Elena’s effort to not let her do that. When she throws Lila’s notebooks away at the beginning of the second book, that is essentially an act of erasing Lila that in writing the current books she’s atoning for. The notebook device works in particular to allow a first-person narrative that has full insight to what other characters are doing when that first person isn’t around, and it works for this narrative in particular because the characters are writers. Even once we surpass the point when Lila gave Elena the notebooks, which happens in chapter 103, the details Elena knows will be attributed to Lila having told her about them at a later point, and we know that Lila is a vivid storyteller, whether in written or oral form.

The notebooks are also a perfect symbol for Lila’s influence on Elena’s life trajectory. Elena studies the notebooks like she studied the letter Lila sent her when Elena was vacationing on Ischia in the first book. Book 2 presents us with a couple of major life plot points for Elena–that is, moments that determine the path and outcome of the rest of her life: going to college, and getting her book published, the latter arising from the former in that Elena meets her publishing connection through her college boyfriend. Neither of these things would have happened to her without Lila’s influence. As we see in the detailed description of Elena’s entrance interviews, she continues her pattern of taking Lila’s insights and passing them off as her own. Here is Lila’s insight about a Samuel Beckett play in chapter 48:

But, [Lila] added, the biggest impression had been made on her by a Dan Rooney. Dan Rooney, she said, is blind but he’s not bitter about it, because he believes that life is better without sight, and in fact he wonders whether, if one became deaf and mute, life would not be still more life, life without anything but life.

Then, at Elena’s entrance exams in chapter 80:

 I was depressed, I quickly lost confidence in what I was saying. The professor realized it and, looking at me ironically, asked me to talk about something I had read recently. I suppose he meant something by an Italian writer, but I didn’t understand and clung to the first support that seemed to me secure, that is to say the conversation we had had the summer before, on Ischia, on the beach of Citara, about Beckett and about Dan Rooney, who, although he was blind, wanted to become deaf and mute as well. The professor’s ironic expression changed slowly to bewilderment.

So without Lila, Elena would not have gone to college, and if she hadn’t gone to college, she might well not have had her career as a writer, since she might not have met Pietro and through him Adele. While Elena no doubt went through great emotional struggle to produce her first publication, the ease with which she gets her novel published without even trying is a little sickening:

“…But I haven’t even reread what I wrote.”

“You wrote only a single draft, all at once?” she asked, vaguely ironic.

“Yes.”

“I assure you that it’s ready for publication.”

Lila influenced the development of Elena’s novel in other ways; if Lila hadn’t gotten with Nino, Elena wouldn’t have had the beach virginity scene to write about. And then, she rereads “The Blue Fairy” and understands that she’s essentially copied it. Elena sums up the force of Lila’s influence on her in one of her retrospective passages:

This is more or less what happened to me between the end of 1963 and the end of 1965. How easy it is to tell the story of myself without Lila: time quiets down and the important facts slide along the thread of the years like suitcases on a conveyor belt at an airport; you pick them up, put them on the page, and it’s done.

It’s more complicated to recount what happened to her in those years. The belt slows down, accelerates, swerves abruptly, goes off the tracks. The suitcases fall off, fly open, their contents scatter here and there. Her things end up among mine: to accommodate them, I am compelled to return to the narrative concerning me (and that had come to me unobstructed), and expand phrases that now sound too concise. For example, if Lila had gone to the Normale in my place would she ever have decided simply to make the best of things? And the time I slapped the girl from Rome, how much did her behavior influence me? How did she manage—even at a distance—to sweep away my artificial meekness, how much of the requisite determination did she give me, how much did she dictate even the insults? And the audacity, when, amid a thousand doubts and fears, I brought Franco to my room—where did that come from if not from her example? And the sense of unhappiness, when I realized that I didn’t love him, when I observed the coldness of my feelings, what was its origin if not, by comparison, the capacity to love that she had demonstrated and was demonstrating?

Yes, it’s Lila who makes writing difficult. My life forces me to imagine what hers would have been if what happened to me had happened to her, what use she would have made of my luck. And her life continuously appears in mine, in the words that I’ve uttered, in which there’s often an echo of hers, in a particular gesture that is an adaptation of a gesture of hers, in my less which is such because of her more, in my more which is the yielding to the force of her less. Not to mention what she never said but let me guess, what I didn’t know and read later in her notebooks. Thus the story of the facts has to reckon with filters, deferments, partial truths, half lies: from it comes an arduous measurement of time passed that is based completely on the unreliable measuring device of words.

Elena in turn influences Lila’s trajectory by being responsible for directing her to Ischia, where Nino is. But other factors play a role in the downfall of Signora Carracci besides the son of Sarratore. The climactic gesture from Book 1, Stefano and Rino betraying Lila by giving Marcello her original shoes, returns to play a pivotal role in their fortunes when the Solaras screw over the Cerullos by taking the shoe Lila designed and having them manufactured somewhere else and selling them without giving any of the profits to Stefano or the Cerullos. As Stefano takes increasing refuge in his failures in Ada, Lila is not only brushed to the side but then essentially sold to Michele Solara, at which point she takes refuge with the steadfast Enzo. Her connection to Nino through Elena then manifests again when Lila runs into Bruno and gets a job at the salami factory. She probably would have had to get a job to help Enzo support herself and her son anyway, but the fact that it comes through this figure reminiscent of the Ischia period is all the more poetic.

The theme of dissolving margins that originated with Lila’s New Year’s Eve 1958 episode in the first book continues to have its dimensions elucidated as Lila’s life as constructed at the end of the first book crumbles and dissolves across the arc of the second:

That people, even more than things, lost their boundaries and overflowed into shapelessness is what most frightened Lila in the course of her life. The loss of those boundaries in her brother, whom she loved more than anyone in her family, had frightened her, and the disintegration of Stefano in the passage from fiancé to husband terrified her. I learned only from her notebooks how much her wedding night had scarred her and how she feared the potential distortion of her husband’s body, his disfigurement by the internal impulses of desire and rage or, on the contrary, of subtle plans, base acts. Especially at night she was afraid of waking up and finding him formless in the bed, transformed into excrescences that burst out because of too much fluid, the flesh melted and dripping, and with it everything around, the furniture, the entire apartment and she herself, his wife, broken, sucked into that stream polluted by living matter.

Ferrante reinforces this theme with the episode of Lila redecorating her wedding portrait to hang in the shoe shop in the rich neighborhood, which she enlists Elena’s help with, foreshadowing how Elena will help Lila dissolve the boundaries of Signora Carracci in setting things up so Lila can spend the night with Nino. The theme also arises in the question of the boundaries between the different generations, when Stefano’s father Don Achille emerges from him after the wedding, and his true nature is revealed.

Having Nino show back up after his long disappearance to defend Elena’s novel is the perfect cliffhanger to segue to the next installment.

-SCR

Illustration by Shonagh Rae

 

Those Knockout Neapolitan Novels Part 1: My Brilliant Friend

Perhaps you’ve heard of the four-book series known as the Neapolitan Novels, published in English from 2012-2015, under the pseudonym Elena Ferrante. In one of the interviews this elusive author has given, she’s said that she intended the series to read as a single novel. It tells the story of the narrator Elena (Lenù) Greco’s relationship with her friend from childhood, Rafaella (Lila) Cerullo. It’s a complicated relationship. The first installment offers us their childhood and adolescence, as well as a hook from the present day of old age to justify the need to tell this particular story.

In the prologue, “Eliminating All the Traces,” we learn that our first-person narrator is writing this story after she gets a phone call from Rino, her friend Lila’s son, who tells her that Lila had disappeared. Elena recalls when Lila long ago expressed a desire to not just disappear, but erase any trace of her existence; she realizes Lila has disappeared on purpose. Angry, Elena starts writing down everything she remembers of her.

We start with childhood, “The Story of Don Achille.” Elena knew Lila for several years in their relatively impoverished and violent Naples neighborhood before they became friends; Lila was a troublemaker in school who then turned out to already know how to read and write. One day, when they finally play with their dolls together, Lila throws Elena’s down into a dark cellar they’re scared of; Elena, who copies Lila in all things despite being scared, follows suit with Lila’s doll, but when they go down to look they can’t find them, and Lila claims that Don Achille, an ogre-like man in the neighborhood whom everyone is terrified of, took them. In the meantime, Elena receives a proposal of marriage from Nino Sarratore, whom she likes but rejects in her depression over her lost doll. Lila and Elena then go to Don Achille’s door, Lila taking Elena’s hand on the way, the gesture that changes everything between them forever. Don Achille gives them money for new dolls, which they end up buying the novel Little Women with, harboring the dream that they’ll become rich writing novels. The two are competitive in school, though Lila’s better, but then Lila’s parents don’t let her advance to middle school, while Elena’s, despite reservations, do. When Lila pesters her father about letting her go, he throws her out a window, breaking her arm. Elena and Lila are friends with Carmela Peluso, and are at her house when her father, a degenerate gambler who used to have a carpenter shop that Don Achille apparently turned into a grocery, is arrested for murdering Don Achille.

At this point we transition to adolescence, “The Story of the Shoes.” We begin with Lila’s “dissolving margins” episode during New Year’s 1958—during which she momentarily sees physical boundaries as permeable, including those between people—then circle back to earlier, when Elena goes to middle school and Lila starts to work in the shoe shop. Elena hits puberty first, but continues to be aware of Lila’s influence and importance to her. She finds out Lila is secretly reading and is angry Lila will only talk to her about shoes. Lila comes up with a plan for her family to start making shoes at the shop, and designs some, in the interest of getting rich like the Solaras. Donato Sarratore publishes a book of poems that he dedicates to Elena’s neighbor Melina, an unbalanced woman whom this dedication further unbalances; Elena is more preoccupied with the fact that someone from their neighborhood published a book. Lila helps Elena pass her Latin exams. Lila hits puberty. One day, the Solaras try to get Elena and Lila to ride in their car, and Lila pulls her shoemaker’s knife on them. Elena sees the greater city of Naples for the first time when she starts high school. Lila’s beauty causes tension in their neighborhood social group (Ada, Antonio, Pasquale, Carmela, Enzo, Elena, Lila, Rino) when she attracts attention when they leave the neighborhood. Pasquale tells Lila about fascists and the black market, the origin of the money behind Don Achille’s—now Stefano’s—grocery in the neighborhood. Nino Sarratore is at Elena’s high school, but she becomes Gino’s girlfriend. Stefano the grocer invites them for a New Year’s celebration at his house, where he promises they will set off more fireworks than the Solaras, and Lila thinks he’s making a gesture that their generation should move past the violent history between the generation above them (Don Achille et al). They all go (we return to the starting point of Lila’s dissolving margins episode, which Elena only learns about when Lila tells her about it much later), and in their firework competition, the Solaras start firing guns at them. After this episode, Lila stops going to the shoe shop, and Rino shows Fernando the shoes he and Lila made, which infuriate Fernando, who told them he didn’t want them to make shoes. Elena breaks up with Gino for laughing at Alfonso, her classmate, friend, and Stefano’s younger brother. Pasquale and Marcello Solara both make proposals to Lila; she rejects both but only tells everyone about rejecting Marcello. Elena does well in school by studying a lot but also by writing about ideas she’s discussed with Lila. When the gang goes out to the rich part of town one night at Lila’s insistence, the gulf between them and the rich becomes glaringly apparent; Rino gets in an altercation and he and Pasquale are almost beaten up badly but are rescued by the Solara brothers. Marcello comes over to Lila’s and asks Fernando to see the pair of shoes Lila made, but Lila hides them instead of retrieving them for him. At the arrangement of Maestra Oliviero, Elena goes to spend a month of her summer vacation on Ischia, where the Sarratores end up coming to stay in the same house she is. Nino tells her he proposed to her as a child because he wanted to become friends with her and Lila and was jealous of their closeness. After an extended silence, Lila sends her a letter that Elena is jealous of the fluid writing style of before she absorbs the contents that Marcello has been coming over to Lila’s house and her parents believe them to be engaged. In the house on Ischia, Donato Sarratore, Nino’s father, kisses and molests Elena, and she leaves for Naples the next day. Lila gets her to ride in Stefano’s new car with her, and then Stefano buys the shoes Lila made from the shop. He also buys the shop next door for Fernando to expand and have a shoe factory. He then asks for Lila’s hand in marriage and she accepts, happy to be rescued from Marcello Solara’s pursuit. Back at school, Elena rebuffs Nino because he reminds her of his father. Lila starts throwing around Stefano’s money and lording about like a lady. When the Solaras spread rumors about Lila giving Marcello blow jobs, Stefano and Lila decide not to respond, conduct unheard of in their neighborhood; Pasquale, Enzo and Antonio take revenge for them, beating up the Solaras and trashing their car. In an attempt to keep up with Lila, Elena becomes Antonio’s girlfriend. She helps Lila deal with her antagonistic mother- and sister-in-law during the wedding preparations. At school, she challenges a religious idea by repeating something Lila said to her, and gets in a dispute with a teacher that Nino asks her to write about for a local journal; Lila helps Elena write the piece that induces Nino to say she writes better than he does. Elena uses Antonio to make Nino jealous, letting Antonio go into debt for clothes to take her to Lila’s wedding. The newly produced Cerullo shoes, which Fernando, against Stefano’s wishes, modified somewhat from the original design, don’t sell. When Stefano tells Lila that Silvio Solara is going to be the speechmaster at their wedding, she almost calls it off until Elena manages to convince her not to, but she makes him swear Marcello won’t come to the wedding. The morning of the ceremony, Elena bathes Lila and helps her get ready. Nino turns up at the wedding because his sister is Alfonso’s date. Pasquale drives their car to the reception so violently it makes Elena realize that thanks to school she doesn’t belong among this group anymore. At the reception, Elena’s mother has figured out that she’s with Antonio and forces her to sit with her until Elena escapes and sits with Nino, pissing Antonio off. Nino tells her they decided not to publish her article about her dispute with the religion teacher, crushing Elena’s dream about rising above and escaping the neighborhood by seeing her name in print. Just as Nino leaves, the Solara brothers enter, Marcello wearing the original pair of shoes that Rino and Lila made and that Stefano bought before proposing to Lila.  

Part of what reels you in with this book is that Ferrante is spinning two distinct narrative arcs—Elena’s and Lila’s—that complement and weave in and out of each other.

It was an old fear, a fear that has never left me: the fear that, in losing pieces of her life, mine lost intensity and importance.

Hints are dropped along the way that these arcs will diverge by Elena leaving and Lila staying; we’re told in the prologue that Lila “had never left Naples in her life.” What’s fascinating about these arcs is the way they mutually impact each other; if you remove one, the other would necessarily be different; it’s precisely because of Lila that Elena is able to leave. But the prologue also offers a perhaps more subtle hint for where the direction of the entire series is headed: 

To me, for more than sixty years, she’s been Lila. If I were to call her Lina or Raffaella, suddenly, like that, she would think our friendship was over.

In addition to their interdependency, the first book’s title, My Brilliant Friend, underscores the pair’s interchangeability when it makes an appearance in-text. Since the title is in first person and our first-person narrator is Elena, the likely initial impression of the term is that Lila is Lenù’s brilliant friend, but in the text, it’s Lila using it to refer to Lenù:

“No, don’t ever stop: I’ll give you the money, you should keep studying.”
I gave a nervous laugh, then said, “Thanks, but at a certain point school is over.”
“Not for you: you’re my brilliant friend, you have to be the best of all, boys and girls.”

This is late in the book (chapter 57 of 62), and here we see each near the climax of their arcs, for this installment anyway: Elena’s arc is defined by her success in school, which is irrevocably influenced by Lila; Elena would not have done as well in school as she does without Lila intellectually challenging her. Lila, cut off from school early, pursues wealth, first in the form of trying to design and make shoes, then in a relationship with someone prominent in the neighborhood, Stefano the grocer; she’s described as plotting this outcome with Elena as a means of escaping Marcello. The question that keeps us going (in addition to the well-drawn characters) is will Elena and Lila be able to escape the toxic suck of their neighborhood and upbringing? How will their neighborhood’s influence and history impact their trajectories and manifest in their futures?

In their neighborhood, there’s a pervasive awareness of class, of people defined by their jobs and children defined by what their parents do: 

Carmela couldn’t believe that I had refused the son of the pharmacist, and she told Lila. She, surprisingly, instead of slipping away with the air of someone saying Who cares, was interested.

and

But above all it was now clear that I wasn’t clever: the young son of Don Achille had passed and I hadn’t, the daughter of Spagnuolo the pastry maker had passed and I hadn’t: one had to be resigned.

There are also certain rules and standards, which are upheld and enforced by violence. As Elena explains when she refuses to ride with the Solaras:

I said no because if my father found out that I had gone in that car, even though he was a good and loving man, even though he loved me very much, he would have beat me to death, while at the same time my little brothers, Peppe and Gianni, young as they were, would feel obliged, now and in the future, to try to kill the Solara brothers.

Lila tries to escape by remaining in the neighborhood but changing its codes of conduct, to varying degrees of success—her father throwing her out the window for trying to insist on continuing school is, at the least, foreshadowing the fate of most of her most vehement efforts. Elena will try to escape literally through education, which is why an entire chapter is focused on when she gets to see the city outside the neighborhood for the first time going to high school. This pattern of school being her literal escape will continue (we see it in play when Elena gets to go to Ischia while back home Lila suffers through Marcello’s pursuit). What shifts and keeps the narrative going is Elena’s confidence in whether she’s capable of escaping or not. The climax of Lila’s wedding cements Lila in the neighborhood, possibly in a role where she might be able to change things, while on the way to the wedding reception, Elena realizes from Pasquale’s violent driving and the boys’ crude behavior that she doesn’t belong among the people who come from her neighborhood anymore. At the reception, Elena is pulled between the competing forces that define her—her school life, through the appearance of Nino, and her neighborhood life, via her date, her boyfriend Antonio. We see that Elena’s preference here is clearly Nino—and thus the life that school engenders. But then when Nino tells her her article wasn’t published, it makes her question everything—she’s not so sure she doesn’t belong among those of her neighborhood anymore. (In the beginning of book 2, when Elena begins to skip school, we’ll see the threat this publication failure poses to her trajectory.) Lila’s position is also challenged, in her case by the appearance of the Solaras at her wedding, which necessarily indicates betrayal on the part of the husband who was supposed to be the key to escaping her circumstances. 

Despite the fact that they’re pursuing different life paths—education versus wealth—Elena copying or attempting to copy Lila will be a pattern that recurs in different ways throughout the series. Elena attempts to define herself both through Lila and in opposition to her, but from the first book we understand that reacting to Lila, in one way or another, is the engine of Elena’s motivation; Lila gives her life meaning and is essentially the reason Elena does everything that she does. Lila is an essential part of her identity. (As a Telegraph review of a play adaptation of the series puts it, “both women are destined to fight forever against the shadow of the other.”) In the first chapter, this pattern is set up when Elena tells us:

I immediately did the same [as Lila], although I was afraid of falling and hurting myself.

This before they’ve even spoken to each other yet.

In Writing Fiction: A Guide to Narrative Craft, Janet Burroway, paraphrasing novelist Michael Sharra, describes narrative arcs as “a power struggle between equal forces,” and tension rising by “shifting the power back and forth from one antagonist to the other.” A lot of the tension in Ferrante’s twin arcs is caused by Elena’s shifting relation to Lila—she’s second to her in elementary school, superior to her in middle school and her own puberty, inferior again once Lila hits puberty and Pasquale becomes interested in her, superior when she gets the opportunity to go to Ishchia, inferior again when Lila snags Stefano and money. Elena’s primary motivating force is to keep up with Lila; sometimes she lags behind, sometimes she perceives herself to be ahead. This power struggle is perfectly embodied in the chapter 57 quote from earlier when Lila orders Lenù to keep studying, telling her she’ll pay for it. Studying and school are Elena’s sources of power over Lila, and Lila attempts to control Elena’s studying, that source of power over herself, via wealth, her source of power over Elena.

The richness of the history we’re provided with as the backdrop to these events is in large part what imbues them with their emotional power and provides the novel a texture of complexity. Ferrante excels at balancing the retrospective perspective of her narrator, who already knows everything that’s happened, with the decidedly restricted perspective of a child and adolescent; these two different modes are almost like the pedals that propel the bicycle of the narrative along. As children, Elena and Lila experience the violence of their neighborhood as the state of normalcy and, based largely on what they’ve heard their parents say, are terrified of Don Achille. Take the description of Elena’s childhood perception of Don Achille taking the Pelusos’ carpenter shop and turning it into a grocery:

For years I imagined the pliers, the saw, the tongs, the hammer, the vise, and thousands and thousands of nails sucked up like a swarm of metal into the matter that made up Don Achille. For years I saw his body—a coarse body, heavy with a mixture of materials—emitting in a swarm salami, provolone, mortadella, lard, and prosciutto.

Later, the reader will understand that Don Achille was so hated by the generation of Elena and Lila’s parents because he was a loan shark, and that he took the carpenter shop because Peluso was in debt to him that he was unable to pay back. The path that Don Achille’s dirty money takes after his death is what makes Lila’s actions relevant in a larger context. By marrying Stefano, she’s profiting from one of the neighborhood’s most violent defining forces, and she herself is aware of this fact. 

So a big part of what provides this complex texture is the movement between vividly, sensorily occupying a specific moment in time, and reflecting on the implications of such moments from a future vantage:

“It seemed to me—articulated in words of today—that not only did [Lila] know how to put things well but she was developing a gift that I was already familiar with: more effectively than she had as a child, she took the facts and in a natural way charged them with tension; she intensified reality as she reduced it to words, she injected it with energy. But I also realized, with pleasure, that, as soon as she began to do this, I felt able to do the same, and I tried and it came easily.” (emphasis mine)

In this retrospectively enhanced passage, we see that what is ultimately Elena’s interest in writing, that which will dictate her scholastic, career, and life paths, originates with Lila. We see more of Lila’s writing ability when she dramatizes in story the formative event of their childhood—the murder of Don Achille—making the murderer a woman and embellishing with another detail:

The blood spurted from his neck and hit a copper pot hanging on the wall. The copper was so shiny that the blood looked like an ink stain from which—Lila told us—dripped a wavering black line.

It is no coincidence that the comparison of the violence at this definitive moment invokes writing. The development of the symbol of the copper pot effectively dramatizes the elements of the writing process that Lila is best at, elements which we study through Elena’s eyes in the manner of a student.

The copper pot reappears in Lila’s letter to Elena when Elena’s on Ishchia, another defining moment for her and in particular her writing; we later observe the import of this moment when, during her exams, the teachers praise Elena’s fluid writing style, which she essentially learned by studying Lila’s letter. Part of what she finds so enthralling about this letter, in addition to its as-if-spoken voice, is, essentially, its symbolism.

A few evenings earlier, something had happened that had really scared [Lila]. … She had turned suddenly and realized that the big copper pot had exploded. Like that, by itself. It was hanging on the nail where it normally hung, but in the middle there was a large hole and the rim was lifted and twisted and the pot itself was all deformed, as if it could no longer maintain its appearance as a pot. Her mother had hurried in in her nightgown and had blamed her for dropping it and ruining it. But a copper pot, even if you drop it, doesn’t break and doesn’t become misshapen like that. “It’s this sort of thing,” Lila concluded, “that frightens me. More than Marcello, more than anyone. And I feel that I have to find a solution, otherwise, everything, one thing after another, will break, everything, everything.”

Elena is jealous of Lila’s writing ability, though her own ability to articulate what’s so great about it is no less enviable:

My gaze fell on the copper pots.

How evocative Lila’s writing was; I looked at the pots with increasing distress. I remembered that she had always liked their brilliance, when she washed them she took great care in polishing them. On them, not coincidentally, four years earlier, she had placed the blood that spurted from the neck of Don Achille when he was stabbed. On them now she had deposited that sensation of threat, the anguish over the difficult choice she had, making one of them explode like a sign, as if its shape had decided abruptly to cede. Would I know how to imagine those things without her? Would I know how to give life to every object, let it bend in unison with mine?

The answer, of course, is no.

The copper pot comes up one more time, when Elena thinks she sees Donato Sarratore in the neighborhood after his taking advantage of her on Ischia:

Whether that apparition was true or false, the sound my heart made in my chest, like a gunshot, stayed with me, and, I don’t know why, I thought of the passage in Lila’s letter about the sound that the copper pot had made when it burst. That same sound returned the next day, at the mere sight of Nino.

Elena admires Lila’s ability to connect events, to trace lines through things, to provide some sort of order in the chaos of their world. Elena does the same after reading Lila’s letter, thinking about the period she attaches herself to Stefano’s brother Alfonso during Lila’s engagement:

…it seemed to me right that the duty had fallen to two Carraccis, Stefano and him, to protect, if in different forms, Lila and me from the blackest evil in the world, from that very evil that we had experienced for the first time going up the stairs that led to their house, when we went to retrieve the dolls that their father had stolen.

Thus ends chapter 34. Then chapter 35 begins:

I liked to discover connections like that, especially if they concerned Lila. I traced lines between moments and events distant from one another, I established convergences and divergences. In that period it became a daily exercise: the better off I had been in Ischia, the worse off Lila had been in the desolation of the neighborhood; the more I had suffered upon leaving the island, the happier she had become. It was as if, because of an evil spell, the joy or sorrow of one required the sorrow or joy of the other; even our physical aspect, it seemed to me, shared in that swing.

Elena has two parallel plots of her own playing out, one with Lila and one with Nino, each contributing to a kind of a French braid if the central thread is her school trajectory. While the Lila thread is more prominent in the first book, the Nino thread will gain increasing traction. In the first book, his major plot points are: he makes Elena a proposal of future marriage when they’re children; he’s almost killed when his family moves out of the neighborhood after the melee with Melina; they end up in high school together; they end up on Ischia together—at which point he tells her he proposed as a child not just because he liked her but because he liked her and Lila; his father molests her and so she rebuffs him when they return to school after Ischia; he asks her to write the article about the dispute with the religion teacher, offering her a chance to see her name in print and thereby escape the grip she imagines the neighborhood holds on her; he turns up at the wedding, telling her the article was not published, crushing her dream.

Part of what the retrospective perspective enables Ferrante to do is jump to different points in time. She will repeatedly manipulate chronologies to increase tension, as is apparent from the prologue told from the present day. Then when childhood starts, the structure of the order we get events in resembles a slingshot of sorts: we start with the defining moment, going up the stairs together to Don Achille’s, then pull back to when Elena first met Lila in school, then pull back further to their playing with their dolls together without actually speaking, then to Elena helping Lila in the rock fight that started because of the school competition (still without speaking), then meet back up to the stairs moment and go from there, though still with some little jumps back and forth in time here and there. Writers who are afraid of exposition could take a page from Ferrante, who loves to offer a general (while engaging and vivid) description of a time period then tell you that two different important episodes occurred then, and here are the scenes of what they were. We are not simply shown Elena’s actions and left to interpret them for ourselves; rather, frequently, motivations are elucidated:

Why do you behave like that, the father isn’t the son, the son isn’t the father, behave as Stefano did with the Pelusos. But I couldn’t. As soon as I imagined kissing him, I felt the mouth of Donato, and a wave of pleasure and revulsion mixed father and son into a single person.

The question of whether fathers are like sons, referenced most overtly with the pairings of Don Achille and his son Stefano and Donato Saratorre and his son Nino, is one that the series will continue to explore as Elena continues to waver over it. It’s also symbolic of the larger question of how much their generation will resemble that of their parents. Lila supposedly marries Stefano thinking that he’s not like Don Achille, while Elena is hindered from getting with Nino by her inability to separate him from his father.

In addition to the complex sequencing of her scenes, the structure of Ferrante’s sentences also deserves mention. So many imbedded clauses! There are many qualifiers for sentences that are what Annie Proulx called “architectural marvels” when she read here in Houston this past January. The retrospective perspective seems to be part of what enables her to pack so much into a single moment. Just look at all the commas, and feel the rhythm they supply:

Lila would thrust her hand and then her whole arm into the black mouth of a manhole, and I, in turn, immediately did the same, my heart pounding, hoping that the cockroaches wouldn’t run over my skin, that the rats wouldn’t bite me. Lila climbed up to Signora Spagnuolo’s ground-floor window, and, hanging from the iron bar that the clothesline was attached to, swung back and forth, then lowered herself down to the sidewalk, and I immediately did the same, although I was afraid of falling and hurting myself.

-SCR

It’s Happening NOW

Everybody thinks Hitler got to power because of his armies, because they were willing to kill, and that’s partly true, because in the real world power is always built on the threat of death and dishonor. But mostly he got to power on words—on the right words at the right time.

-Orson Scott Card, Ender’s Game

In 2013, sci-fi author Orson Scott Card did a thought experiment so off-base it makes one wonder how he so accurately assessed Hitler:

In the essay, which was published on Card’s Civilisation Watch blog and titled “Unlikely Events”, the novelist posits a future where Obama rules as a “Hitler- or Stalin-style dictator” complete with his own “national police force” of “young out-of-work urban men”. He also suggests that Obama and his wife, Michelle, might amend the US constitution to allow presidents to remain in power forever before the next presidential election and would then “win by 98 percent every time”.

This thought experiment turns out to bear a number of similarities to Sinclair Lewis’s 1935 novel It Can’t Happen Here, except that Lewis fabricates an individual to fulfill the role of President Dictator. 

I first came across It Can’t Happen Here this past January, in a display of science-fiction classics outside the Special Collections department at the University of Houston library. It just so happened to be Inauguration Day, as the gigantic high-def screen on the ground floor beaming CNN would not let me forget. As soon as I read the exhibit’s blurb, I knew I had to read the book–while simultaneously being terrified to:

This 1935 novel imagines the rise of fascism in America. Boorish Senator Berzelius “Buzz” Windrip uses a populist campaign, in which he promises to bring back prosperity, to win the 1936 election for the presidency.

Really, this novel might more aptly be called “speculative fiction,” as Margaret Atwood defines the term in her essay collection In Other Worlds: SF and the Human Imagination: “things that really could happen but just hadn’t completely happened when the authors wrote the books,” while “science fiction” she defines as “things that could not possibly happen,” though she notes that Ursula K. Le Guin uses the term “fantasy” for things that could never happen and “science fiction” for things that could happen but haven’t yet. Definitions are relative, as facts have now also become.

So let’s see how closely Lewis has provided us a blueprint for how the next four years (or fewer?) might go–and how closely Lewis’s thought experiment mirrors Card’s. 

The novel opens in Vermont at the “Ladies’ Night Dinner of the Fort Beulah Rotary Club,” which is hosting military officials expounding on the idea that America has to arm itself to preserve peace. There seem to be only two people present resistant to the pressure of this thinly disguised militaristic political tide:

…one Doremus Jessup, editor of the Fort Beulah Daily Informer, locally considered “a pretty smart fella but kind of a cynic.”

There’s also Lorinda Pike, “the village scold, the village crank.” After the dinner, Doremus goes over to the wealthy Francis Tasbrough’s house and discusses politics with some of the prominent men in the community. The name Buzz Windrip is mentioned for the first time by Doremus:

With all the discontent there is in the country to wash him into office, Senator Windrip has got an excellent chance to be elected President, next November, and if he is, probably his gang of buzzards will get us into some war, just to grease their insane vanity and show the world that we’re the huskiest nation going. And then I, the Liberal and you, the Plutocrat, the bogus Tory, will be led out and shot at 3 A.M. Serious? Huh!

Doremus predicts (rightly, it will turn out) that:

If Bishop Prang, our Savonarola in a Cadillac 16, swings his radio audience and his League of Forgotten Men to Buzz Windrip, Buzz will win.

But Doremus is met with resistance:

“Nonsense! Nonsense!” snorted Tasbrough. “That couldn’t happen here in America, not possibly! We’re a country of freemen.”

Doremus responds with a litany of past wrongs that have happened:

Remember the Kuklux Klan? Remember our war hysteria, when we called sauerkraut ‘Liberty cabbage’ and somebody actually proposed calling German measles ‘Liberty measles’? And wartime censorship of honest papers? Bad as Russia! Remember our kissing the—well, the feet of Billy Sunday, the million-dollar evangelist, and of Aimée McPherson, who swam from the Pacific Ocean clear into the Arizona desert and got away with it? Remember Voliva and Mother Eddy?. . . Remember our Red scares and our Catholic scares, when all well-informed people knew that the O.G.P.U. were hiding out in Oskaloosa, and the Republicans campaigning against Al Smith told the Carolina mountaineers that if Al won the Pope would illegitimatize their children? Remember Tom Heflin and Tom Dixon? Remember when the hick legislators in certain states, in obedience to William Jennings Bryan, who learned his biology from his pious old grandma, set up shop as scientific experts and made the whole world laugh itself sick by forbidding the teaching of evolution?. . .Remember the Kentucky night-riders? Remember how trainloads of people have gone to enjoy lynchings? Not happen here? Prohibition—shooting down people just because they might be transporting liquor—no, that couldn’t happen in America! Why, where in all history has there ever been a people so ripe for a dictatorship as ours! We’re ready to start on a Children’s Crusade—only of adults—right now, and the Right Reverend Abbots Windrip and Prang are all ready to lead it!

We get some exposition about Doremus’s journalism career and his family (three kids: Philip, 32; Mary, 30; Sissy, 18), and when he goes home and and barks his shins on a lawnmower left out by his hired man, we are introduced, indirectly, to his hired man Shad Ledue, whom Doremus alternately resolves to fire and enjoys the task of attempting to civilize:

He was entirely incompetent and vicious.

Doremus reads a letter from an old professor of his at Isaiah College who says that the students have started military training and the college has ordered that anyone who criticizes it be kicked out. Later, while Doremus awaits a broadcast by Bishop Prang, we get some exposition about our worrisome presidential candidate:

He had worked his way through a Southern Baptist college, of approximately the same academic standing as a Jersey City business college, and through a Chicago law school, and settled down to practice in his native state and to enliven local politics. He was a tireless traveler, a boisterous and humorous speaker, an inspired guesser at what political doctrines the people would like, a warm handshaker, and willing to lend money. He drank Coca-Cola with the Methodists, beer with the Lutherans, California white wine with the Jewish village merchants—and, when they were safe from observation, white-mule corn whisky with all of them.

Within twenty years he was as absolute a ruler of his state as ever a sultan was of Turkey.

Notably—unlike some—this controversial candidate has a fair amount of actual political experience. He’s also only 48 years old. But in other areas, there might be closer similarities to our current President:

He was certain that some day America would have vast business dealings with the Russians and, though he detested all Slavs, he made the State University put in the first course in the Russian language that had been known in all that part of the West.

He also quadrupled his state’s militia, which protected him when he was accused of grafting tax money. A big part of his effectiveness is thought to derive from his secretary, Lee Sarason, who also probably wrote Windrip’s book on “remolding the world”: Zero Hour—Over the Top. A choice passage from this tome:

The Executive has got to have a freer hand and be able to move quick in an emergency, and not be tied down by a lot of dumb shyster-lawyer congressmen taking months to shoot off their mouths in debates.

The Republican candidate doesn’t stand a chance:

All the while, Walt Trowbridge, possible Republican candidate for President, suffering from the deficiency of being honest and disinclined to promise that he could work miracles, was insisting that we live in the United States of America and not on a golden highway to Utopia.

There was nothing exhilarating in such realism…

Doremus goes on an idyllic picnic with his family but takes a portable radio with him to listen to Bishop Prang’s broadcast, during which Prang declares he and his sizable League of Forgotten Men will do everything in their power to support Windrip’s candidacy. When Doremus complains that in a couple of years everything they do will be regimented under a dictatorship, all of his family—except, notably, Julian Falck, one of Sissy’s suitors—tell him that can’t happen here.

Supported by Colonel Dewey Haik, Windrip shortly secures the Democratic nomination for President, edging out FDR. Doremus talks to Shad about how Shad plans to vote for Windrip, since he’s promising “to fix it so everybody will get four thousand bucks, immediate.” Windrip releases his 15-point platform, which includes centralizing control of finances through a Federal Central Bank; a limit on the amount of money you can earn in a year ($500k); seizing any profits generated from war; prohibiting “Negroes” from voting, public office, and jobs that require an education; giving every person $5k a year; sending all women back to their rightful job as homemakers; and turning Congress into an advisory body whose approval he does not need to do things. Windrip is supposed to be a good speaker:

…under the spell you thought Windrip was Plato, but [] on the way home you could not remember anything he had said.

Here we might derive further likenesses to a certain someone:

He was an actor of genius. There was no more overwhelming actor on the stage, in the motion pictures, nor even in the pulpit. He would whirl arms, bang tables, glare from mad eyes, vomit Biblical wrath from a gaping mouth; but he would also coo like a nursing mother, beseech like an aching lover, and in between tricks would coldly and almost contemptuously jab his crowds with figures and facts—figures and facts that were inescapable even when, as often happened, they were entirely incorrect.

And

Aside from his dramatic glory, Buzz Windrip was a Professional Common Man.

Perhaps there’s less of a likeness in his family:

Buzz’s lady stayed back home, raising spinach and chickens and telling the neighbors that she expected to go to Washington next year, the while Windrip was informing the press that his “Frau” was so edifyingly devoted to their two small children and to Bible study that she simply could not be coaxed to come East.

Windrip intensifies his campaigning and appeals to an increasing number of groups, the poor and rich alike (the rich believing that only he can jump-start “the Business Recovery”). Doremus labels the movement as “‘revolution in terms of Rotary.’” FDR starts a new party to try to encroach on Windrip, but his appeals fall on deaf ears:

The conspicuous fault of the Jeffersonian Party, like the personal fault of Senator Trowbridge, was that it represented integrity and reason, in a year when the electorate hungered for frisky emotions, for the peppery sensations associated, usually, not with monetary systems and taxation rates but with baptism by immersion in the creek, young love under the elms, straight whisky, angelic orchestras heard soaring down from the full moon, fear of death when an automobile teeters above a canyon, thirst in a desert and quenching it with spring water—all the primitive sensations which they thought they found in the screaming of Buzz Windrip.

No one campaigns harder for Windrip in Fort Beulah than Shad Ledue. Doremus manages to get a ticket to Windrip’s campaign finale at Madison Square Garden, and in New York City he first lays eyes on a particular group of soldiers:

Three weeks ago Windrip had announced that Colonel Dewey Haik had founded, just for the campaign, a nationwide league of Windrip marching-clubs, to be called the Minute Men. It was probable that they had been in formation for months, since already they had three or four hundred thousand members. Doremus was afraid the M.M.’s might become a permanent organization, more menacing than the Kuklux Klan.

He sees them attack an old man who calls out his support for FDR and then violently break up a meeting of Communists; when the police come to break it up they arrest not the Minute Men who incited the conflict, but the Communists and Jeffersonians. When Doremus does finally get to hear Windrip speak at the rally, he briefly comes under his spell:

“I’ll be hanged! Why, he’s a darn good sort when you come to meet him! And warm-hearted. He makes me feel as if I’d been having a good evening with Buck and Steve Perefixe. What if Buzz is right? What if—in spite of all the demagogic pap that, I suppose, he has got to feed out to the boobs—he’s right in claiming that it’s only he, and not Trowbridge or Roosevelt, that can break the hold of the absentee owners? And these Minute Men, his followers—oh, they were pretty nasty, what I saw out on the street, but still, most of ‘em are mighty nice, clean-cut young fellows. Seeing Buzz and then listening to what he actually says does kind of surprise you—kind of make you think!”

But as soon as he leaves he can’t remember anything Windrip actually said.

At home on election night, Doremus finds a note on his front porch:

You will get yrs Dorey sweethart unles you get rite down on yr belly and crawl in front of the MM and the League and the Chief and I

A friend

Once Windrip is elected, Doremus tries to escape into literature but soon finds this isn’t viable. Some Communists try to get him to join with them, but he resists, pondering how all the different modes of running a society have problems and even questioning the country’s Revolutionary and Civil Wars, wondering if those who have tried to interfere with the State have done more harm than good. He finds no consolation in church. He visits Lorinda Pike at the tavern she runs—they’ve long been lovers. Lorinda notices that Shad Ledue is outside spying on them. Sissy comes in and Doremus gets Shad to drive his car back while he rides back with Sissy. She calls him out for being Lorinda’s lover and tries to pep him up to fight Windrip. At home Shad also makes an insinuation about Lorinda and Doremus fires him; Shad says he was about to quit for a political secretaryship. Windrip appoints his cabinet, which consist of his cronies, including Lee Sarason as Secretary of State. Then, there’s the inauguration, which is apparently the first to take place January 20:

The followers of President Windrip trumpeted that it was significant that he should be the first president inaugurated not on March fourth, but on January twentieth according to the provision of the new Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution.

Then the inauguration:

More than a thousand reporters, photographers, and radio men covered the inauguration. Twenty-seven constituents of Senator Porkwood, of all sexes, had to sleep on the floor of the Senator’s office, and a hall-bedroom in the suburb of Bladensburg rented for thirty dollars for two nights. The presidents of Brazil, the Argentine, and Chile flew to the inauguration in a Pan-American aëroplane, and Japan sent seven hundred students on a special train from Seattle.

(We’ll take the word of this omniscient narrator that the fanfare really was this extreme.)

Windrip’s first actions in office are to declare a “real New Deal,” put his feet up in the White House, make the Minute Men an army beholden only to him and Lee Sarason, and:

…that he should have complete control of legislation and execution, and the Supreme Court be rendered incapable of blocking anything that it might amuse him to do.

When Congress, whom his party does not have a majority of, promptly rejects this bill, Windrip declares a state of martial law and has the Minute Men arrest a hundred Congressmen. (Here is the real turning point, in chapter 15, a little less than halfway through the book.)

How does the public react?

There were riots, instantly, all over Washington, all over America.

When a mob tries to free the Congressmen from their jail and the Minute Men start to abdicate under the pressure, Windrip makes a passionate plea from a window for all Minute Men to help defend him, claiming they were once poor but they will be the ones to help make the new America and be the new aristocracy (the different but parallel approach to “Make America Great Again”….) and to, if need be, “give the swine the point of your bayonet!” The M.M.’s open fire. After some Congressmen make it back from jail, they vote, and the bill dubiously passes. When Bishop Prang tries to contest Windrip’s actions, he’s arrested, while the public is told he’s in jail for his protection against a Bolshevik plot. There’s not official press censorship, yet, but people reporting things against the administration start to get arrested. Windrip tells the country that they’re fighting

…powerful and secret enemies of American principles—one rather gathered that they were a combination of Wall Street and Soviet Russia.

Windrip has pulled off a coup in the first eight days of his administration (and in the book, all in chapter 15). Doremus continues to print subtly critical things about the government, sure the hysteria can’t last:

It was not that he was afraid of the authorities. He simply did not believe that this comic tyranny could endure. It can’t happen here, said even Doremus—even now.

Doremus’s friend Buck Titus lets him and Lorinda use his cabin. Windrip maintains power and four members of the Supreme Court resign and are replaced by his cronies. Windrip abolishes states and divides the country into eight provinces, claiming this will economize things but really making it easier for the Minute Men to maintain power. New military commissioner posts are created. All billboards are replaced with pro-Windrip propaganda. The Commissioner of Doremus’s county, north Vermont, is Shad Ledue, now “Captain,” despite having no legitimate military training. Minute Men enrollment increases. It’s one of the M.M.’s who is

…the first patriot to name President Windrip “the Chief,” meaning Führer, or Imperial Wizard of the K.K.K., or Il Duce, or Imperial Potentate of the Mystic Shrine, or Commodore, or University Coach, or anything else supremely noble and good-hearted.

The next Presidential mandate abolishes political parties:

There was to be only one: The American Corporate State and Patriotic Party—no! added the President, with something of his former good-humor: “there are two parties, the Corporate and those who don’t belong to any party at all, and so, to use a common phrase, are just out of luck!”

Soon this State’s adherents becomes known as “Corpos.”

Windrip then claims to have abolished unemployment by establishing labor camps run by Minute Men where the unemployed go to carry out labor assigned by the State under prison-like conditions. There is less mutiny against this than there might be thanks to loudspeakers enabling Windrip and Sarason to tell the workers, on a nightly basis,

…that they were the honored foundation stones of a New Civilization, the advance guards of the conquest of the whole world.

Border security is increased to keep “lying Red propagandists” publishing material making the Corpo State look bad from escaping. Senator Trowbridge outsmarts the dozen M.M. guards on him and escapes to Canada, where he starts the “New Underground,” or “N.U.” Doremus goes to his college class reunion to find that some of his old professors have recently been fired. At home, he hears a story about how Secretary of Education Hector Macgoblin got drunk and tried to get a hold of a former teacher; when he learned the teacher was visiting a Jewish rabbi, he bursts into the apartment where they are and ends up shooting and killing both of them. Despite being the obvious aggressor and invading a victim’s home, Macgoblin is acquitted of murder on the grounds of self-defense. Doremus writes an editorial for the Informer virulently protesting the event, and after debating with his family and Lorinda whether to run it, does, after stopping to visit his son-in-law Dr. Fowler and grandson David. After its release, a mob gathers outside the office and storms in; Shad enters and stops them from hurting Doremus, but then arrests him. He’s brought before the military judge Effingham Swan, habeas corpus having been suspended in the current state of crisis. They say they have enough evidence to shoot him but will instead keep him on at the Informer writing only what their men direct him to. Then Doremus’s son-in-law Dr. Fowler bursts in, claiming that they’re kidnappers, and Swan has him taken out back and shot. Doremus’s daughter Mary and her son David move back in the house, where the atmosphere has markedly shifted to depression and fear. He drags on at the office. Lorinda tells him she’s trying to organize some country girls she knows into a resistance. His friend Karl Pascal tries to get him to join the Communists, but he resists.

The Corpos then “ended all crime in America forever” by simultaneously arresting everyone even suspected of crime. They shut down all the universities and open their own Corpo versions. As soon as Sissy announces she’s leaving her high school, which is now making her pledge allegiance to the Corpos, Julian Falck shows up from Amherst saying it’s just been shut down and wondering what he’ll do for a job; they discuss marriage and children, though Sissy no longer believes in either. Julian starts driving around the doctor that Doremus’s murdered son-in-law used to work for. Concentration camps are opened (chapter 22) to handle the overflow from prisons and to house all suspected Communists. Doremus gets word of some rebellions that the Corpos bloodily put down. People have to watch what they say all the time for fear of being sent to a camp; many journalists are arrested. Then books that are supposedly seditious (including most literature) are collected and burned. Shad and Staubmeyer, whom Doremus works for at the paper, search his house and take his books. At the actual burning Karl Pascal throws a fit at his books having been taken and is the second citizen from Fort Beulah sent off to a camp. Reporters from London claim that Americans are pleased with the new State, not taking into account that such claims originated from fear. Doremus gets nervous his time is coming after he can tell his private papers have been rifled. Buck Titus comes over and says he’s gotten word Doremus is next to be arrested and that he’ll help the family escape to Canada with his fake Canadian papers. Doremus’s family convinces him (though he secretly plans to return to fight Shad once they’re settled up there) and they set off, but when they try to take a back road across the border there they run into M.M. guards who say they have to call their battalion leader to check the papers, so they turn back.

At home again, Doremus’s son Philip the lawyer visits from Worcester; Doremus is shocked that Philip supports the Corpos and has come to try to convince him to be more compliant. When Shad visits the house to see if Doremus ever talked to Karl Pascal about Communism, Mary promises she’ll kill him and Judge Swan. Doremus’s old professor Victor Loveland is caught complaining about his new crappy job and sent to a concentration camp; another friend is sent off when he resists the government moving a bunch of poor people onto his farm. Doremus, sensing his time is near, quits the Informer and goes to Shad’s supervisor District Commissioner Reek, who agrees to keep Shad from arresting him for it if Doremus helps him with some of his private writing. Doremus gets Julian Falck to put him in contact with some Communists he might do some subversive work with, but when he meets them they think he’s too old for the laborious work of distributing pamphlets, and are further put off by his admiration for Trowbridge. A man, Mr. Dimick, who claims to be an insurance salesman starts following Doremus around and eventually reveals himself to be part of Trowbridge’s New Underground, trying to recruit Doremus. He joins a group that starts writing and distributing seditious pamphlets telling real stories of the horrors going on that he receives through different messengers. Sissy starts getting chummy with Shad to get intel, and Mary helps distribute pamphlets. Doremus and Lorinda’s love intensifies in the midst of their work until Lorinda says that their relationship might be distracting them from more important things. Sissy goes to meet with Shad despite Julian’s concerns he might rape her, trying to get Shad to tell her who he’ll arrest next so they can get that person to Canada, but he resists. Going to the bathroom she finds some keys of his but can’t figure out a way to copy them, and leaves abruptly, shaken by Shad’s advances. Her courage inspires Julian to join the M.M.’s to get what intel he can; he meets with Sissy regularly to share what he’s learned. The lies from the administration keep coming about the successes they have achieved; the armed forces increase in number, and the gaiety of the populace steadily decreases. Doremus feels their N.U. efforts are futile, but continues with them anyway. Francis Tasbrough tells Doremus there’s going to be a shakeup in Commissioner offices, with Colonel Dewey Haik becoming Secretary of War, which means Tasbrough might get promoted, and tries to get Doremus to help back him, but Doremus refuses. Someone else is arrested and sent to a camp for writing the pamphlets Lorinda and Doremus wrote, and he struggles to keep his mouth shut. Swan gets promoted and has Reek arrested. Doremus is paranoid Shad is on to their pamphlet writing so they hide their tools and invite Shad to a poker game to throw him off. At home Doremus works on a pamphlet about Swan’s crimes.

On July 4 Doremus is arrested at home and his Swan tract is discovered; the rest of his NU accomplices, including Buck Titus, have also been arrested. He’s brought to District Commissioner headquarters and thinks he’ll be saved because the DC is Tasbrough, but he’s tossed in a cell without seeing him. The next day he’s sentenced to swallow castor oil and is lashed until he’ll admit he’s a communist, but he won’t. He goes on trial before Swan and is sent to a concentration camp at Trianon for seventeen years (and given the oil and lashes again). At the camp he gets to stay in the hospital for a month and then they let him see Dr. Olmsted from Ft. Beulah, who quickly tells him his family is carrying on. He’s assigned to sweep and scrub instead of working in the woods gang and gets to talk to a few prisoners he knew from home, including Karl Pascal. His family can occasionally visit, but only closely monitored. His cousin Henry Veeder is shot for trying to escape. Then Julian Falck is brought in as a prisoner, caught for spying in the M.M.s. Doremus is beaten for not admitting to be involved in Julian’s subversive activities.

Meanwhile, Shad is angry that he hasn’t been promoted even though he’s brought in more traitors than anyone. He has a black man who used to be a professor arrested. Then he turns up in the camp as a prisoner “for having grafted on shopkeepers,” though the rumor is it’s really because he didn’t share enough of the graft with Tasbrough. Doremus tries to dissuade the other prisoners from doing anything to Shad, who’s responsible for most of them being in there, but it has no effect. Someone throws a gas-soaked wad of waste into Shad’s cell and he burns to death. Since no one will confess who did it, ten prisoners are chosen randomly and shot, including Doremus’s old professor.

At home, Mary gets sick of how cautious they have to be and leaves to join the Corpo Women’s Flying Corps, eventually flying alongside Swan’s plane and dropping grenades on it; when they miss, she dive bombs her own plane into his and kills them both. Emma and David go to live with Philip; Sissy works for Lorinda. It turns out she’s the one who turned Shad in to Tasbrough after getting him to tell her how he made his money. Right after Lorinda tells Sissy she’s going to bribe the guard Aras Dilley to help Doremus escape, they get the news that Lee Sarason has deposed Windrip and taken over the country. We get exposition about how Buzz depended on Lee more than anyone but then Lee started to pull away. The way Buzz treats the White House might be somewhat familiar:

No newspaper had dared mention it, but Buzz was both bothered by the stateliness of the White House and frightened by the number of Reds and cranks and anti-Corpos who, with the most commendable patience and ingenuity, tried to sneak into that historic mansion and murder him. Buzz merely left his wife there, for show, and, except at great receptions, never entered any part of the White House save the office annex.

Vice President Beecroft defects to Canada. Sarason and the rest of the cabinet wants to declare war on Mexico to unite the populace, but Buzz is scared what will happen if they put guns in the hands of too many. Then Sarason, Haik, and Macgoblin show up at the hotel suite where Windrip really lives and are going to kill him but then decide to let him flee to another country. Sarason agitates for war with Mexico, and a month into his presidency, he’s shot and killed by Secretary of War Haik, who has the favor of the troops. Haik is a strict orthodox Christian and makes people long for the days of Windrip. Dilley gets Doremus out of the camp and back to Lorinda and Sissy, whom he spends a few days with before shaving his beard and escaping into Canada, where he becomes friends with Trowbridge and the former VP Beecroft, but most Canadians are bored by the American plight. America trundles toward war with Mexico at the same time it’s dealing with revolts against the Corpos. Then the Chief of Staff declares Trowbridge Temporary President, and his faction battles with the Corpos for control of the country. Trowbridge sends Doremus back to America as a spy; Lorinda shows up to say goodbye before he leaves. Staying with one of Trowbridge’s agents, Doremus dreams he’s back at Trianon and that it’s declared Haik has been captured and they’re all freed and his family is waiting for him. Then he’s woken with news that Corpos are after him so he moves on:

And still Doremus goes on in the red sunrise, for a Doremus Jessup can never die.

The End.

The chronic tension here is the state of the country, while the acute tension is the election of a candidate who promises to solve all the country’s problems. Shockingly, the candidate doesn’t live up to his word. Lewis gives himself the best of both worlds by employing (so to speak) an omniscient narrator while still focusing on a main character; thus we get to see things that Doremus doesn’t, like explicit conversations between Windrip and Sarason, and the scene of Windrip’s overthrow. It seems a smart move that Lewis does not make Windrip or any of the politicians in his coterie the main character here. The explanation for why he doesn’t seems embedded in the novel’s final line. By referring to “a Doremus Jessup,” Lewis reinforces Doremus’s role as an everyman, though his role is actually more specific than that, since not every man would resist the tide of fascism—though perhaps every man might like to believe he would. 

The focus on both Windrip and Doremus provides the reader with two interrelated arcs, one national, one local. But there’s also a third arc on the local level that engages the reader—that of the villain Shad Ledue. Shad doesn’t get his $5000. None of the poor do. What they get is a chance at power, at a class switch. Shad is the first to take advantage. Every insult he’s had to endure as the lowly hired help is paid back in kind. But in the end, he doesn’t get away with it; instead, he suffers horribly as a direct result of his actions; it’s the prisoners he put into the camp who kill him there. What goes around comes around it would seem, especially when Tasbrough, who supposedly put Shad in the camp for not sharing his graft, is then himself put in jail for grafting. Then Haik gets rid of Tasbrough for “garner[ing] riches too easily and too obviously,” but then a bit later we learn:

Francis Tasbrough, very beautiful in repentance, had been let out of the Corpo prison to which he had been sent for too much grafting and was again a district commissioner, well thought of…

It seems that at the end of the day the system continues to favor those it always did.

The book spans years, but can basically be divided into three acts: before, during, and after Windrip’s presidency. The last act feels the most rushed and slipshod (Mary becomes a proficient flying Corpo awfully quickly), but this seems appropriate to what the tenor of the country might feel like at this stage. Lewis chooses an interesting ending point, one still essentially in media res, but it’s an ending that’s more hopeful than what it seemed like we were going to get when Doremus was in a concentration camp, at which point I thought things would just get increasingly worse. It seems logical that Windrip would be deposed by the same man who helped him gain power, and even more logical that the deposer would then himself be deposed. So we end with two oppositional forces fighting for control of the country, and Doremus setting off on a risky mission to help the good forces (for it’s pretty black and white who’s good and who’s evil in this narrative), endangering the freedom that he’s in a position to value much more highly than us everyday modern citizens (at this moment in time, anyway). Doremus never gives up. He publishes the editorial about Macgoblin’s crime, writes pamphlets for the underground organization, plans to return to America after his family escapes (or tries to) to Canada, and does return when he finally actually makes it to Canada. He is a textbook hero—except for the fact that he cheats on his wife. Though his facility with the ladies—or at least one lady who is not his wife—might still fall in the confines of the hero’s textbook. At any rate, in our current age, Doremus still provides a worthwhile example to follow. Don’t give up, people! This can’t last forever!

But what’s more on display in this novel than the power of the hero is the power of propaganda, as per the disconcertingly insightful epigraph from Card. Chapters 5-20 begin with excerpts from Windrip’s tome Zero Hour, which allow the reader to see his propaganda at work, as in Chapter 18’s:

In the little towns, ah, there is the abiding peace that I love, and that can never be disturbed by even the noisiest Smart Alecks from these haughty megalopolises like Washington, New York, & etc.

The power of appealing to the rural voting base seems not to have diminished in the intervening decades.

The Minute Men’s lowest rank being designated as “inspector” instead of “private” mitigates the lowliness of that position:

The M.M. ranks were: inspector, more or less corresponding to private; squad leader, or corporal; cornet, or sergeant; ensign, or lieutenant; battalion leader, a combination of captain, major, and lieutenant colonel; commander, or colonel; brigadier, or general; high marshal, or commanding general. Cynics suggested that these honorable titles derived more from the Salvation Army than the fighting forces, but be that cheap sneer justified or no, the fact remains that an M.M. helot had ever so much more pride in being called an “inspector,” an awing designation in all police circles, than in being a “private.”

Windrip is able to claim he’s eradicated all unemployment through the creation of labor camps that are more like jails than jobs, but we can see how, from his perspective, he would be able to make this claim without himself thinking it’s an outright lie. This may or may not provide some insight into how our current president can make some of the insupportable claims he has. We see this pattern play out again when he claims to have eradicated all crime by arresting anyone who bears the slimmest possibility of being a criminal. Getting rid of all crime is apparently worth the Constitutional violation.

The Minute Men is perhaps where Lewis’s vision most closely coincides with Card’s, the latter describing Obama convening a similar institution:

In other words, Obama will put a thin veneer of training and military structure on urban gangs, and send them out to channel their violence against Obama’s enemies.

Instead of doing drive-by shootings in their own neighborhoods, these young thugs will do beatings and murders of people “trying to escape” — people who all seem to be leaders and members of groups that oppose Obama.

But the media will cover all the actions of the NaPo as if it were merely a full-employment program for unemployed urban youth. Or if they finally wise up (maybe after a few reporters disappear), they’ll be cowed into submission very quickly.

Lewis’s vision imagines fascism rising in America at the same time it was gaining prominence in Germany and Italy in the buildup to the Second World War. At that time, people who claimed “It can’t happen here” would have turned out to be right—for awhile at least. Four years ago, Card was apparently of the belief that it could happen here, though he attributed the advent of fascism to the wrong individual. Trump hasn’t raised a private army to protect him for grafting tax money (knock on wood), but his refusal to release his tax returns and reveal his horrendous conflicts of interest is almost as horrifying for the fact that he didn’t need an army to defend him. Not to mention that his budget proposal beefing up the public army mitigates any need for a private one…  

Now we’ll have to wait and see if two years is really America’s timetable for a despot’s policies to undo him.    

-SCR

The Keen Eyes of the Outsider

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s 2013 novel Americanah, supposedly slated for an upcoming film adaptation, provides a perspective that sheds light on the construction of race in America, as well as other problematic myths about America’s greatness, by providing us a tale of an immigrant who returns to live in her home country because she wants to, not because she’s forced to.

Part 1

Chapter 1: Ifemelu heads from Princeton to Trenton to get her hair braided for her move back to Nigeria after 13 years in America. She thinks about the end of her “lifestyle” blog about race and talks to her Senegalese hairdresser Aisha about her move back, surprising herself when she says she’s going to “see my man.” She’s just broken up with her black American boyfriend Blaine for the move, and has been thinking about her university boyfriend Obinze, whom she knows is married with a child now. While trying to avoid talking to Aisha, Ifemelu writes Obinze an email to tell him she’s moving back.

Chapter 2: We switch to Obinze’s point of view in Lagos, Nigeria, as he receives her email when he’s being driven home from work. He’s apparently done quite well for himself, but Obinze is not sure he’s happy with his life. His light-skinned wife Kosi is pleased when mistaken for being mixed race. Tonight they’re going to a party at the Chief’s, the man who helped Obinze get started in his present real-estate career; he has a vague premonition that the Chief will eventually ask for something unsettling in return for his favors, like helping with an assassination. At the party his wife and some women discuss possible British or French schools for his daughter, though Obinze would prefer a Nigerian one. He’s bored at the party and on the way home thinks about how paranoid his wife’s become that he’ll cheat on her. At home, he writes back to Ifemelu, whom he has perhaps more than fond memories of.

Part 2

Chapter 3: Back at the hairdresser, Aisha wants Ifemelu to talk to her two Igbo boyfriends to convince them to marry her, since they claim they can only marry Igbo women and Ifemelu says she knows Igbo men who have married others, but Ifemelu does not want to talk to these men. Ifemelu challenges Aisha when she uses the wrong comb. She then starts to think about her mother’s hair and how long and amazing it was until the day she was “saved” and came home and chopped it all off. She became an extreme religious nut until the day she claimed to have seen an angel who told her to switch to a less strict congregation. Ifemelu’s father lost his civil-servant job for refusing to call his new female boss “Mommy,” and the landlord comes by and demands rent. She thinks about her Aunty Uju, ten years older than her, whom she’s always had a special bond with for giving her more practical advice than her religious mother.

Chapter 4: Obinze and Ifemelu’s courtship: Obinze moves to town when she’s in high school while his mother, a professor, is on a two-year sabbatical, and he quickly becomes popular. His friends want him to go out with Ifemelu’s best friend Ginika, but at the party where they introduce them, he instead asks Ifemelu to dance. His friends had told him Ifemelu was too much trouble and argumentative, but he prefers that. They talk for a long time at the party and she asks him to kiss her. They say they love each other after a few weeks and she’s worried about how happy she is.

Chapter 5: Ginika gets ready to leave for America with her family, and Ifemelu realizes that she doesn’t fit in with Obinze and the rest of his friends, who have all been abroad; Obinze is obsessed with America. (The term “Americanah” is first introduced in this chapter–someone who has returned from America and adopted American idiosyncrasies.) His mother invites her for lunch and she starts going over there regularly; one day when the mother leaves and realizes they’ve been fooling around while she was gone, she takes Ifemelu into her room and warns her about the dangers of sex and asks her to wait, and get Obinze to agree to wait, and to tell her when they start having sex.

Chapter 6: Ifemelu is fascinated by Aunty Uju’s nice house (with a couple of servants) in Dolphin Estate; Uju has a good job that “the general” got for her; he sees her occasionally even though he’s married. Ifemelu asks to live with Aunty Uju during the school week but her father refuses. He needs money for rent still and when Ifemelu mentions this to Uju she says that she doesn’t actually have any money because she has not been receiving an actual salary at her job; the general wants to make her ask for what she needs. Ifemelu meets him when he comes over for dinner a few times. Once he promises to come over for a holiday and Uju goes to a lot of trouble for him but he cancels at the last second, and when Uju yells at her servant after Uju spills the soup she made and Ifemelu says she should be yelling at the general, Uju slaps her and the dynamic between them changes. Then Uju gets pregnant by the general and he sends her to America to have the baby, which she gives her own surname. Right after the baby’s first birthday, the general dies in a plane crash, and his relatives come to the house demanding Uju leave. She uses her American visa from the pregnancy to escape them.  

Chapter 7: Ifemelu and Obinze end up going to the same university in the same town Obinze used to live and that his mother has moved back to. The professors have to strike frequently because they’re not being paid and so Ifemelu has to go back to Lagos without Obinze and starts spending some time with another boy, causing a temporary rift between her and Obinze. Back at school they finally have sex and Ifemelu gets sick almost immediately and is worried she’s pregnant, but the tests come back negative. It turns out her appendix is inflamed and she has to have it taken out. Obinze’s mother then talks to them about safe sex.

Chapter 8: With so many university strikes Uju suggests Ifemelu come to study in America; she applies and gets in and doesn’t expect to get a visa but does. When she says goodbye to Obinze’s mother, his mother tells her that she and Obinze need to make a plan; their plan is he will join her in America as soon as he graduates.

Chapter 9: We return to the hair salon briefly, the intense heat there a segue back to the first time Ifemelu experienced an American heat wave, when she first arrived in America. Uju picks her up and she stays in her apartment in Brooklyn, babysitting Uju’s son Dike. She notices that America has subdued Uju, who complains about the three jobs she has to work and that she failed her last medical exam; she had thought things would be better by now.

Chapter 10: Exposition about Ifemelu’s “summer of waiting.” She hangs out with the neighbor Jane until Jane’s husband Marlon hits on her. She babysits Dike and teaches him long division, eats a lot of American junk food, and watches a lot of TV, until the excessive news reports of crime make her scared to go outside.

Chapter 11: Uju has a man, Bartholomew, who comes to dinner, and Ifemelu doesn’t like him and later reads some of what he’s written online about Nigerians in America, which is largely condescending. She thinks back home Uju wouldn’t have given a man like him the time of day, but when she tells Uju this Uju says they are not in Nigeria. Uju finally passes her medical exams. Ifemelu takes Dike for a day at Coney Island before she leaves for school.   

Chapter 12: Ginika welcomes Ifemelu to Philadelphia. She marvels at how Americanized Ginika has become, very different from Aunty Uju and concludes that being younger, Ginika was more able to pick up cultural cues. Ifemelu finds a room in a house with three other girls and continues to experience bafflement at certain American habits (not dressing up for or dancing at parties, not paying for someone else when you invite them out to eat).

Chapter 13: Ifemelu tries and fails to find a job using her Aunty Uju’s friend’s ID.

Chapter 14: Ifemelu starts classes and continues to experience American anomalies, like a discussion of the word “nigger” in a film class. She starts reading American novels to help her understand America. She meets a Kenyan in the film class who’s president of the African Student Association, and starts going to meetings. She still can’t find a job. Uju calls to say she’s going to move to Massachusetts with Bartholomew.  

Chapter 15: Through Ginika, Ifemelu almost gets a job babysitting but then doesn’t. With her rent overdue, she goes back to a man, a tennis coach, who had offered to pay her to help him “relax” that she recognized as extremely sketchy. She tells him she won’t have sex with him, but lets him put his hand between her legs and gives him a hand job. He pays her a hundred dollars. Filled with self-loathing, she stops going to classes and taking Obinze’s calls. Ginika finally gets ahold of her through her roommate to tell her the babysitter who almost hired her before now does want to hire her. As she drives Ifemelu to the woman Kimberly’s house, she tells Ifemelu she thinks Ifemelu is depressed.

Chapter 16: Ifemelu gets a signing bonus from Kimberly but still can’t bear to talk to Obinze because she’s afraid to tell him what happened. She deletes his emails and doesn’t read a letter he sends. Morgan, the older child she babysits, is hard on the father, Don, but listens to Ifemelu. Ifemelu insults Kimberly’s sister Laura by calling her out for talking about things in Africa she doesn’t have enough info about. Aunty Uju says Dike’s teachers in Massachusetts want to put him in special ed.

Chapter 17: Ifemelu decides to stop faking an American accent when she talks to a telemarketer who tells her she sounds American, and the same day she meets Blaine on a train. They exchange numbers, but when she calls him he never answers. When she gets to Uju’s in Massachusetts, which she was on her way to when she met Blaine, Uju unleashes a torrent of complaints about her predominantly white community there.

Chapter 18: We go back to the salon, where a rowdy woman from South Africa comes in who bad mouths Nigerians, followed by an overly inquisitive white woman. Back in the past, Ifemelu starts dating Kimberly’s cousin Curt (under somewhat coercive circumstances); Curt is a “true believer” in happiness.

Chapter 19: Ifemelu and Curt brunch frequently with Curt’s mother, who doesn’t like her. They go on a boating trip with Morgan, who was “disgusted” by the news of their relationship at first but really enjoys the trip. Curt and Ifemelu joke about marriage. He wants her to quit babysitting but she says she needs a job, and starts to look for what she might do after graduation; the prospects for non-American citizens are not great. Curt gets her an interview at a firm that will help her get a green card. Her career adviser at school tells her to lose her braids for it, and she gets her scalp burned and scabbed after having her hair professionally relaxed, but she gets the job. (We get a blog post discussing what different racial groups aspire to, wondering what the group at the top, WASPs, have to aspire to.)

Chapter 20: Ifemelu moves to Baltimore for the job and likes living there. Her hair starts falling out from the chemicals in relaxer, and her friend Wambui from the ASA convinces her to cut it off and go natural. She hates the way it looks at first but finds a web forum for natural hair online and starts to get into it. She discovers emails on Curt’s computer that he’s been exchanging with another woman, but he claims nothing happened and she forgives him. (And we get one of her blog posts about why black women love Barack Obama–because he didn’t marry a light-skinned black woman.)

Chapter 21: Ifemelu brings Curt to Aunty Uju’s, where he’s relatively well-received. Shortly afterward Uju announces she’s leaving Bartholomew and moving to a new town. (We get a blog post about how Non-American Blacks coming to America will automatically be categorized as black.)  

Chapter 22: Ifemelu runs into her high school friend Kayode at a mall, and he tells her that Obinze, whom he’s in touch with, is in England. Ifemelu emails him later that day, using her pet name for him (“Ceiling”) and apologizing for her long silence.

Part 3

Chapter 23: We switch to Obinze in London. A couple of years after his arrival there, he’s arranging to pay for a sham marriage through some Angolans. He meets the girl, Cleotilde, and they like each other. He sees the name of an old friend on the marriage registration board when he goes to an administrative office and we segue back to his time after graduation in Nigeria, when he was immediately turned down for an American visa, and his long-time plan was dashed. When his mother goes to an academic conference in London, she lists him as her research assistant and gets him a UK visa for six months.

Chapter 24: Obinze’s first job is cleaning toilets in an office. When someone leaves a coiled turd on a toilet lid he leaves without cleaning it, then that same day gets Ifemelu’s apology email. He doesn’t respond because he has nothing worth telling her. He lives with his cousin Nicholas, who tells him the first thing he needs is an NI number so he can work, then to marry an EU citizen so he can get his papers. Nicholas is married to Obinze’s mother’s former favorite student, and she is now a subservient wife raising their children to be overachievers. Obinze sometimes listens to her gossip with her friends.

Chapter 25: The first person Obinze visits in England is his secondary schoolmate Emenike, who says he’s excited to see him but then is always too busy to. Obinze calls another old schoolmate, Iloba, who introduces him to a guy named Vincent who offers Obinze an NI number for 35% of the wages Obinze makes working with it.

Chapter 26: Obinze gets a job at a detergent-packing warehouse after he quits the toilet-cleaning job. His boss takes a liking to him. He often makes deliveries with a young guy named Nigel who wants his advice on women.

Chapter 27: Once a week Obinze goes to a bookstore to read and there he meets a woman with a son who looks at him with longing but they don’t exchange contact info. He has slept with a Zibabwean who’s hinted she might help him get his papers but he thought their situation was too complicated. He’s never felt so lonely.

Chapter 28: One day the men are weird at the warehouse and Obinze thinks he’s somehow been reported but then they turn out to be celebrating his birthday–that is, Vincent’s birthday. Then Vincent calls that same day to demand more of his wages. Obinze tries to call his bluff, but then Vincent does report him and he has to leave the warehouse. Years later, he calls Nigel to offer him a job when the Chief needs a white man.

Chapter 29: The Angolans demand more money for the marriage arrangements and Obinze calls Emenike, and when they have drinks, Emenike, who is ostentatious about his success, gives him a thousand pounds instead of the loan of five hundred he asks for. Obinze goes to a dinner party at Emenike’s house and meets his older English wife Georgina and their friends and is put off by Emenike’s pretensions.

Chapter 30: Moments before Obinze marries Cleotilde to become a legal citizen, he’s arrested for his visa being expired. Nicholas and his wife visit him in holding before he’s flown back to Nigeria.

Part 4

Chapter 31: Ifemelu has broken up with Curt because she cheated on him with her neighbor, whom she was merely “curious” about having sex with, and Kurt was unwilling to forgive her. A few years later she’s at a dinner party in Manhattan and gets tipsy and starts going off about race and how no one tells the truth about it. Curt sometimes observed the racism they encountered but frequently was oblivious to it. After Curt makes a comment about one of her black magazines being “racially skewed” and she writes to her old friend about dragging him to a bookstore and showing him all the other magazines, the friend suggests she start a blog. We get a blog post about Michelle Obama’s hair.

Chapter 32: Ifemelu tries to remember who she was before Curt. Her parents come to visit; her mother wants to know if she might get married. She quits her job. (A quick blog post asking doctors if race is verifiably genetically different.)

Chapter 33: Ifemelu’s blog starts getting her paid advertisers and speaking gigs (she figures out the latter is just interested in being told what they want to hear). She invites commenters to post stories of their own experiences.

Chapter 34: Ifemelu runs into Blaine again at a blogger’s conference (he blogs about the intersection of academia and pop culture) and they start dating (he was in a relationship when they first met). He is a “man of careful disciplines” with a rigid moral compass who intermittently judges some of the things she does. She meets his best friend and tells her parents about him. We get a blog post about how in America there is racism but no racists.

Chapter 35: Ifemelu meets Blaine’s high-maintenance sister Shan, who has a memoir coming out about growing up black in a white community. Blog post on Obama as the Magic Negro.

Chapter 36: A birthday party with Blaine’s friend Marcia at which racial topics come up and Ifemelu’s blog is praised and during which Obama is announcing his candidacy. They go to a talk by his ex (who’s with a woman now) and and Ifemelu is slightly jealous. A blog post about traveling when black.

Chapter 37: Dike is six feet tall, charismatic, and has a girlfriend. Ifemelu and Blaine go to one of Shan’s pretentious “salons” at which Shan rants about race and the issues with her book’s release. A blog post about whether Obama’s black (he is).

Chapter 38: Ifemelu and Blaine have a near breakup fight when Ifemelu goes to a lunch with a professor Blaine dislikes (who’s the one who tells her to apply for the fellowship at Princeton) instead of to a protest Blaine organized, then lied to him about it. A blog post about being poor and black being worse than being poor and white.

Chapter 39: Ifemelu stays in Willow with Aunty Uju and Dike, and Dike is blamed for a hacking incident he didn’t have anything to do with and experiences racism in other ways that he laughs off. Finally, Blaine takes her back, but their relationship is changed. A blog post about white people claiming racism is complex as an excuse to not talk about it.     

Chapter 40: Ifemelu and Blaine bond over Barack Obama, who’s elected president, a moment of pure, unadulterated joy. (And she got the fellowship.) A blog post about having a white friend who “gets it” say all the things you can’t say about racism.

Chapter 41: Back at the salon, Aisha asks how she got her papers, a taboo question, but Ifemelu tells her she got her green card through her job sponsoring her. Aisha breaks down sobbing about the probability of never seeing her parents again and Ifemelu offers to go talk to the Igbo guy she’s trying to get to marry her. On her way home, Aunty Uju calls with the news that Dike just tried to kill himself by overdosing on Tylenol.

Part 5

Chapter 42: Obinze writes a long email to Ifemelu about how his mother died. She responds immediately saying she’ll call then he responds with something he worries is coming on too strong. Even though she doesn’t reply, he writes her emails about what happened to him in England. Finally she writes back and tells him what happened to Dike. Obinze is distracted as he visits potential nursery schools with his wife. He reads Ifemelu’s blog and doesn’t recognize her in it.

Part 6

Chapter 43: Ifemelu, deeply affected by Dike’s suicide attempt, puts off her departure for Nigeria, but eventually he tells her he’s fine and that she should go.

Part 7

Chapter 44: Ifemelu gets to Lagos and is somewhat overwhelmed. She stays with her old friend Ranyinudo, who’s dating a married CEO. When Ifemelu can’t breathe in the humidity, Ranyi calls her an Americanah.

Chapter 45: Ifemelu starts working for a women’s magazine run by a rich woman as a hobby and gets an apartment. She doesn’t tell Obinze she’s back yet.

Chapter 46: Ifemelu lies to her parents and her friends that she’s still with Blaine and that he’s coming over soon. Her old friends are preoccupied with weddings and marriage.

Chapter 47: The office staff at the magazine is small: a woman who always tries to get Ifemelu to go to church, a woman, Doris, who also went to college in America and thinks this makes her and Ifemelu better than the others, and Zemaye, who hates Doris.

Chapter 48: Doris gets Ifemelu to go to a gathering of people who have come back from abroad, and they all talk about what they miss from America. Ifemelu finds them obnoxious though she knows that she’s like them.

Chapter 49: Ifemelu is bored with the work the magazine is doing. Her boss turns down a more interesting profile she wants to run and she thinks about starting her own blog. She finds out her coworker is taking unlabeled medicine her doctors gave her for typhoid and wants to write about that. She has a confrontation with Doris about the content (they run profiles on boring rich people because those people paid the magazine to profile them) and quits.

Chapter 50: Dike comes to visit the day after she starts her new blog (“The Small Redemptions of Lagos”). She writes about the Nigerpolitan club that Doris took her to. Then she writes another post “about the expensive lifestyles of some young women in Lagos” and her friend Ranyi gets mad at her since it’s about her so Ifemelu takes it down. Dike leaves and Ifemelu gets mad at Ranyi for not understanding his suicide attempt.

Chapter 51: Ifemelu keeps thinking she sees Obinze everywhere so she finally calls him; they meet up immediately at a bookstore and reconnect. Then the next day they have lunch at her place and, after they kiss, she finally tells him about the tennis coach and why she cut off contact with him.

Chapter 52: Ifemelu and Obinze ostensibly start dating, going to a bunch of different places, Ifemelu enjoying Lagos, though still occasionally revealing American predilections. One day she brings up having sex, forcing the issue of his cheating. They have sex.

Chapter 53: Ifemelu and Obinze continue their affair and avoid talking about his wife; when she does come up once, Ifemelu gets upset. Obinze invites her to come on a trip to Abuja with him, but then texts her that he wants to go alone so he can think things through; she texts back “Fucking coward.” He visits but she is not appeased by his talking about his responsibilities, and he leaves.

Chapter 54: From Obinze’s POV in Abuja, wavering about whether he made the right decision to not bring Ifemelu. He haggles with a businessman who wants to buy some of his land and who complains about Igbo people compared to other Nigerian populations; Obinze eventually agrees to his price. He thinks about Ifem and how she said she wanted to raise her kids in Nigeria. He gets a call from his wife on his way home and thinks about when his daughter was born and how Kosi was disappointed it wasn’t a boy. He’s rude at a dinner with his wife and Nigel and Nigel’s girlfriend, and claims to be sick to Kosi that night to explain his mood. The next morning he tells her he loves someone else and wants a divorce, and she says he can’t just break up the family because his old girlfriend came back; he’s surprised that she already knew he was cheating. The next day they go to his friend’s daughter’s christening party, and he tells his friend he wants a divorce; the friend tells him his reason isn’t good enough.  

Chapter 55: Ifemelu finally sees the mating dance of the male peacock she can see from her window. She has constant memories of Obinze, but writing her blog posts she is at peace: “She had, finally, spun herself fully into being.” She calls and catches up with Blaine and Curt. She runs into Fred, a guy she met at the Nigerpolitan club, and starts dating him, but doesn’t feel much for him. Then after seven months without seeing each other, Obinze shows up at her flat and tells her he’s left his wife, though he still wants to see his daughter as much as possible. Ifemelu seems reticent at first but when he says he’s going to keep chasing her, she invites him in. The End.

The novel’s chronic tension is pretty much Ifemelu’s entire personal history, while the acute tension is her return to Nigeria from America. What’s at stake in her return is primarily what will happen between her and Obinze, who comprises a significant element of her past, and their relationship provides the structure for the book. The question the reader is reading to find the answer to is not just what will happen to Ifemelu, but what will happen to Ifemelu and Obinze; this is why the book is not exclusively from Ifemelu’s point of view, but has several chapters from Obinze’s. But while the outcome of their relationship provides the novel’s primary dramatic focus, Ifemelu’s relationships with America and with Nigeria are also at stake. These are not separate from the Obinze thread, however; rather, these threads are one and the same. Her relationship with Obinze is symbolic of her relationship with Nigeria, her home country. Her separation from Obinze coincides with her separation from her country, and her return to Obinze coincides with her return to her country, albeit not neatly. She does not break up with him as soon as she leaves, and she does not reunite with him immediately upon her return, symbolizing the periods of adjustment she had to go through upon leaving and returning. It takes her time to assimilate to America, and, once so assimilated, it takes her time to readjust upon her return.

In terms of structure, Adichie does not start at the beginning, with Ifemelu’s childhood, but rather picks a point dictated by the acute tension—preparation for the return to Nigeria. The hair-braiding provides a nice point for this because of its racial significance (we’ll come to find out that her relationship with her hair has been a significant part of her American journey). Hair also provides the segue back into the past via the discussion of her mother’s hair. Adichie stays with Ifemelu long enough in the present before this segue that the reader has generated enough of an interest in her to care about her past. The opposing settings of the opening—uppity Princeton and ghetto Trenton—also set us up for one of the novel’s main conflicts, the opposing settings of Nigeria and America. Ifemelu has to go to Trenton because the overwhelmingly white Princeton has no places where she can get her hair braided, since such places exist only “in the part of the city that had graffiti, dank buildings, and no white people.” Adichie’s actually providing a structural blueprint with the opening description of Princeton and how it smells segueing into descriptions of other places she’s lived:

Princeton, in the summer, smelled of nothing, and although Ifemelu liked the tranquil greenness of the many trees, the clean streets and stately homes, the delicately overpriced shops, and the quiet, abiding air of earned grace, it was this, the lack of a smell, that most appealed to her, perhaps because the other American cities she knew well had all smelled distinctly. Philadelphia had the musty scent of history. New Haven smelled of neglect. Baltimore smelled of brine, and Brooklyn of sun-warmed garbage. But Princeton had no smell.

The narrative will eventually delve much more deeply into Ifemelu’s experiences in these different American locations, though interestingly this opening does not present these locations in the order Ifemelu experiences them (which would be Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Haven).  

The acute tension thread stays in the hair salon through Part 4. Ifemelu undergoes a significant change in her time in the salon in that she goes from not wanting to talk to Aisha’s Igbo boyfriends at the beginning to volunteering to go seek one out after Aisha breaks down in front of her, making her realize that she’s been more privileged in her experience as an immigrant via her white boyfriend helping get her a job that got her a green card. This change is also symbolic of how much what’s happened in her past has changed her. At this point in the narrative, the descriptions of her past have caught up to the present, which means that structurally, she can now leave the hair salon. That we’ve reached a climactic point in the narrative is further underscored by her learning of Dike’s suicide attempt as soon as she leaves. This attempt comes as a surprise to both Ifemelu and the reader, since Dike’s presented as relatively well-adjusted. In retrospect, however, his laughing at the racism he endured, like the hacking incident he was nonsensically accused of, becomes much more sinister, causing the reader to question how deeply Ifemelu herself has been affected by her American experiences.

One of the other main conflicts, really the same conflict, as previously mentioned, is who is the love of Ifemelu’s life (with the question of love translating symbolically to which one she loves more, America or Nigeria):

she had a fellowship at Princeton and a relationship with Blaine—“You are the absolute love of my life,” he’d written in her last birthday card…

“I don’t want to be a sweetheart. I want to be the fucking love of your life,” Curt said with a force that startled her.

Ifemelu’s experiences in America are significantly colored (so to speak) by these two, her primary American boyfriends; it certainly does not seem a coincidence that one is white and one black. But neither Curt nor Blaine are the love of her life; Obinze is. Which means that America is not the love of her life, but Nigeria is. This theme of people being representative of their country is underscored by Obama’s election going on during her relationship with Blaine:

On election night, before Blaine kissed her, his face wet with tears, he held her tightly as though Obama’s victory was also their personal victory.

A slightly different version of chapter 2 of the novel appeared in The Best American Short Stories 2011 as “Ceiling.” This is Obinze’s only POV chapter until we get several chapters about him in Part 3, and as such, it makes sense that its content could stand alone as a story. The real reason the novel starts with Ifemelu getting her hair braided is not just because of the racial implications, but because being at the salon provides the opportunity for her to email Obinze to tell him she’s coming back (because she’s trying to avoid talking to Aisha). Receiving this email provides the acute tension of the second chapter and the “Ceiling” story. Its time frame basically ranges from when Obinze gets her email to when he writes his own email back in response; in seeing what he’s doing between these two points, the reader gets a full picture of his current life and his desire to escape it. By focusing on Ifemelu and Obinze as two main characters in separate but connected threads in the first two chapters, the reader is immediately rooting for them to get together. That the portrait of Obinze’s life we see in chapter 2 includes a wife—a wife terrified of his cheating, no less—significantly raises the tension. Then there’s Ifemelu’s supposedly made-up reason for Aisha about why she’s returning to Nigeria, to “see my man.” It turns out this made-up reason is, in fact, true.

The first two chapters alternate Obinze’s and Ifemelu’s perspectives, and so do the last two chapters, though the last two aren’t sectioned off as a separate Part like the first two. Part I takes place in the present, and Part 2 goes into Ifemelu’s past, though notably returns to the present narrative in the salon briefly at the point in the past when Ifemelu transitions to America. Part 3 is the thread of Obinze’s past in England. Part 4 picks up Ifemelu’s past thread where it left off at the point of her breakup with Curt and takes us through her relationship with Blaine, culminating with Obama’s election, and then returns to the present with her learning of Dike’s suicide attempt. Part 5 is a single chapter going back to Obinze in the present. Part 6 is also only a single chapter picking up with Ifemelu’s present thread, still in America. Part 7 tracks her return to Nigeria. Since Obinze and Ifemelu are no longer on separate continents by the end, their points of view don’t need to be separated into different Parts.

Experiencing America through Ifemelu’s point of view, getting an immigrant’s perspective on it, is one of the novel’s strengths, and demonstrative of a strength of fiction in general. The details of Ifemelu’s observed experience as an outsider are meticulous:

Before, she would have said, “I know,” that peculiar American expression that professed agreement rather than knowledge…

She had thought of them as “big,” because one of the first things her friend Ginika told her was that “fat” in America was a bad word, heaving with moral judgment like “stupid” or “bastard,” and not a mere description like “short” or “tall.”

She was agreeable, and smooth-tongued, but Ifemelu could tell that she thought her customer was a troublemaker, and there was nothing wrong with the cornrow, but this was a part of her new American self, this fervor of customer service, this shiny falseness of surfaces, and she had accepted it, embraced it. When the customer left, she might shrug out of that self and say something to Halima and to Aisha about Americans, how spoiled and childish and entitled they were, but when the next customer came, she would become, again, a faultless version of her American self.

But when Ifemelu returned with the letter, Cristina Tomas said, “I. Need. You. To. Fill. Out. A. Couple. Of. Forms. Do. You. Understand. How. To. Fill. These. Out?” and she realized that Cristina Tomas was speaking like that because of her, her foreign accent, and she felt for a moment like a small child, lazy-limbed and drooling.

As one might deduce from Ifemelu’s relationship with Obinze standing in for Ifemelu’s relationship with Nigeria, Adichie is a writer who excels at the use of the objective correlative. In a passage from Obinze’s point of view in the penultimate chapter, he’s haggling with a Nigerian he’s trying to sell some land to:

“Okay, Edusco,” Obinze said, suddenly feeling drained. “I am not going to eat the land if I don’t sell it.”

Edusco looked startled. “You mean you agree to my price?”

“Yes,” Obinze said.

After Edusco left, Obinze called Ifemelu over and over but she did not answer.

Obinze’s suddenly agreeing to this man’s price is symbolic of his agreeing to Ifemelu’s price, which is basically to stop using his “responsibilities” as a copout to avoid their relationship.

And in the last chapter we return to the peacocks that Ifemelu and Obinze had previously been watching from her window:

One day, Ifemelu saw the male peacock dance, its feathers fanned out in a giant halo. The female stood by pecking at something on the ground and then, after a while, it walked away, indifferent to the male’s great flare of feathers. The male seemed suddenly to totter, perhaps from the weight of its feathers or from the weight of rejection.

This description of a male tottering under the weight of rejection is describing Obinze under the weight of her rejection.

If Ifemelu’s separation from Obinze early in the novel represents her separation from her home, then prostitution becomes an interesting potential metaphor for emigration, as it is Ifemelu’s literally prostituting herself with the tennis coach that actually causes her official, as opposed to just physical, separation from Obinze. Adichie likens the feeling of debasing oneself for money to that of leaving one’s homeland for supposedly better opportunities, which might end up causing more problems than it solves. Perhaps there’s also an objective correlative in the final blog post of Ifemelu’s that we see:

But now the shacks are gone. They are erased, and nothing is left, not a stray biscuit wrapper, not a bottle that once held water, nothing to suggest that they were once there.

-SCR

Everything Depends on the Foundation

Issac Asimov’s Foundation series beat out Lord of the Rings for the Hugo Award’s Best All-Time Series while it was still just a trilogy. While the first three volumes were released in 1951, 1952, and 1953, respectively, Asimov began adding to the series in the 80s. While we endure the interminable wait for the HBO adaptation to start production, let’s review how it all began.

Part I—The Psychohistorians

The book begins with an excerpt from an Encyclopedia Galactica entry on Hari Seldon, the mathematician who revolutionized the field of Psychohistory (“that branch of mathematics which deals with the reactions of human conglomerates to fixed social and economic stimuli”). The entry mentions that he died one year after the inception of the new “Foundational Era,” which came after the “Galactic Era.” His biography was written by Gaal Dornick. In Part 1 we follow Gaal’s journey to Trantor, the seat of the Imperial Government of the Galactic Empire, to come work for Hari Seldon. Gaal is followed to his hotel and then to the observation deck he goes to to see more of Trantor, where his pursuer informs him that Hari Seldon predicts disasters. Hari Seldon then appears unexpectedly in Gaal’s room and tells him that he’s calculated a high probability that Trantor will become completely destroyed within three centuries:

“As Trantor becomes more specialized, it becomes more vulnerable, less able to defend itself. Further, as it becomes more and more the administrative center of Empire, it becomes a greater prize. As the Imperial succession becomes more and more uncertain, and the feuds among the great families more rampant, social responsibility disappears.”

Gaal is arrested the next morning and he and Hari Seldon are put on trial for treason with the claim that Seldon’s prediction is designed to be self-fulfilling, that the destruction of Trantor would not actually happen without his prediction. Seldon manages to convince the aristocrats trying him that this is not the case, and that he has nearly 100,000 people working with him on a project to alleviate not the fall of the empire, which is too far along to do anything about, but to minimize the dark period that will follow the fall from 30,000 years to 1,000 years with the creation of a comprehensive encyclopedia that preserves human knowledge. They send him and his group to the uninhabited planet Terminus at the edge of the galaxy to work on the encyclopedia. This exile turns out to have been part of Seldon’s master plan all along. A companion Foundation will also be set up on the opposite side of the Galaxy.

Part II—The Encylopedists

The Encyclopedists have now been on Terminus for fifty years and have established “Encyclopedia Foundation Number One.” Pirenne, an encyclopedist and Chairman of the Board of Trustees (and so a representative of the Emperor), is working when the mayor of Terminus City, Salvor Hardin, comes in and tells him that the governor of Anacreon has declared himself king, an action which will effectively cut Terminus off from the rest of the empire since they’ll block Terminus’s trade route to get metals, which don’t exist on Terminus. Hardin wants to establish some kind of government to fight off Anacreon, but Pirenne insists they can only focus on the encyclopedia. Hardin says Anacreon is sending a special envoy of dubious purpose in two weeks. Anacreon’s prefect, Haut Rodric, comes and announces that they think the nearby kingdom of Smyrno will attack Terminus and so they’re going to establish a military base on Terminus to protect it. He tries to get Pirenne and Hardin to agree to some kind of payment for this protection, like giving away land, and Hardin says something about getting more plutonium for their atomic power plant; from Rodric’s reaction he gauges that none of the surrounding kingdoms in the Periphery have atomic power anymore. Hardin argues with the Board of Trustees about whether the Empire sending its Chancellor will actually nullify the Anacreon threat; Hardin asserts that the mission of recording pre-existing knowledge, this lack of forward progress, is the reason the Empire is dying. One Board member reminds them that soon it will be the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Foundation and so Hari Seldon’s Time Vault will open. The Empire’s Chancellor, Lord Dorwin, arrives on Terminus and pontificates on how well-read he is in archaeology, dismissing the need for any actual firsthand knowledge; he also calls the planets in the Periphery “barbarous” (actually “bahbawous,” since he can’t pronounce his r’s). After Lord Dorwin leaves, Anacreon sends a demand that if Terminus doesn’t give them what they want in a week, they’ll take it by force, a threat Hardin concludes they’ve sent because the Board just told them that the Empire would support Terminus against Anacreon. Hardin examines the treaty the Empire has with Anacreon and deduces that it essentially says the Empire actually has no power over Anacreon. The Board is surprised, since Dorwin promised the Empire’s support, but Hardin recorded everything Dorwin said and analyzes it to show that Dorwin actually made no concrete promises. One Board member says they need to wait for Hari Seldon’s advice on the matter when the Vault opens, and Hardin goes on another rant about Galaxy-wide stagnation and worship of the past being the reason so many planets have lost nuclear power. He points out that Hari Seldon didn’t allow any psychologists on the Foundation because he didn’t want anyone to be able to figure out the real plan. Hardin then discusses plans to overthrow the Board with Yohan Lee. He watches with the Board members as a hologram of Hari Seldon appears from the Vault and tells them the Encyclopedia was a “fraudulent project.” Seldon further expounds:

You will be faced with a series of crises, as you are now faced with the first, and in each case your freedom of action will become similarly circumscribed so that you will be forced along one, and only one, path.

He says their plan is still for both Foundations to shorten the period of barbarism that will happen after the inevitable Fall of the Empire that’s already started, but that he can’t tell them what the actual plan is. He says that due to their being “an island of nuclear power in a growing ocean of more primitive energy” the answer to their current crisis is obvious. The Board members admit they were wrong, but Hardin thinks it’s too late because Lee’s men will already be in charge. In six months he believes Anacreon’s threat will also be nullified thanks to the obvious solution.

Part III—The Mayors

Thirty years after his “coup against the Encyclopedists,” Hardin is talking to Yohan Lee. Around the time of the coup, Terminus lost all contact with the Empire, and now communicates only with its four surrounding kingdoms—as the planets became known after the Empire lost control over them. A deputation from the City Council of four young men headed by Sef Sermak comes in and complains that the foreign policy of the last thirty years has stripped Terminus and made it defenseless by appeasing these kingdoms with bribes (including nuclear power) so they won’t attack them. They’re forming a new political party that will overthrow him unless he resigns. When Sermak says they need to attack the kingdoms before the kingdoms attack them, Hardin reminds him of how he handled the situation with Anacreon thirty years ago: he went to the other three kingdoms and told them that if Anacreon got Terminus’s secret of nuclear power then it would also be a threat against them, the kingdoms, and so the three kingdoms banded together and forced Anacreon off Terminus. His gifts to the kingdoms are ways to play them off against each other. Sermak complains that:

“Yes, but you were forced to surround these scientific gifts with the most outrageous mummery. You’ve made half religion, half balderdash out of it. You’ve erected a hierarchy of priests and complicated, meaningless ritual.”

Hardin explains that he started presenting science as a religion “because the barbarians looked upon our science as a sort of magical sorcery.” The kingdoms developed a priesthood, and it’s the priests who run the nuclear power plants. Lee brings Hardin a paper with some kind of message. After Sermak’s deputation leaves, Lee says that Hardin needs to be careful with Sermak since he’s gaining a large following. Hardin reveals that the message was that Ambassador Verisof is coming to Terminus. Verisof is a high priest on Anacreon who, after complimenting Hardin on how well turning science into a religion has worked out, tells him about the deteriorating situation there due to the young King Lepold’s uncle, the regent Wienis, who has clashed with the priests in the past, and who wants to attack the Foundation. They recently found an old battle cruiser floating in space from centuries ago in good condition and with significantly more capabilities than existing ships. When the Foundation requested it for research purposes, Wienis tried to claim this was evidence the Foundation was planning to attack them. Hardin advises Verisof to let Wienis repair the ship; he plans to let the situation ride until there’s only one possible course of action for them, as per Seldon’s Plan, though he’s worried that the internal pressure posed by Sermak and the external pressure posed by Wienis should have come to a head at the same time, but they’re a few months off.

On Anacreon, the young King Lepold has just returned from a Nyakbird hunt when his uncle Wienis comes to his chambers to tell him there will be war with the Foundation for withholding the source of their power from them. He says that Salvor Hardin is coming to Anacreon on Lepold’s birthday and remembers the last time Hardin came, with the power of the other three kingdoms behind him to kick Anacreon off Terminus. The thought of killing Hardin makes Lepold nervous because he’s afraid it might offend the Galactic Spirit (which he learned all about from Verisof), even though Wienis tells him that the religious stuff is all nonsense, nonsense that helps them rule because the populace believes the king rules by divine right; he points out that if they destroy the Foundation he’ll be eliminating everyone who doesn’t believe he rules by divine right. Lepold agrees to do what Wienis says. Lewis Bort, a member of Sermak’s new Action Party, has gone to Anacreon to spy and reports back to Sermak about how functional the religion the Foundation has created is there, so entrenched that there’s no possibility of overthrowing a king who supposedly rules by divine right. The Foundation has put science behind making the king appear divine by giving him a radioactive aura that burns people when they touch him and a throne capable of flying. None of them can understand why Hardin established “monarch worship.” They wonder how much time they have before Anacreon attacks. Someone bursts in with a paper announcing that Hardin is going to Anacreon, and Sermak says he’ll try to have Hardin impeached for treason, thinking that he’s really been working with Anacreon all along. On his way to the airport to go to Anacreon, Hardin discusses with Lee Sermak’s failed impeachment attempt and his party’s vow to take action. Hardin tells Lee to tell everyone there will be another Hari Seldon Vault appearance on the upcoming eightieth anniversary of the Foundation’s founding; though he doesn’t know if it’s true, he hopes it will postpone Sermak’s attack. On his way to Anacreon he visits “eight of the larger stellar systems of the kingdom” to confer with Foundation reps there. On Anacreon’s capitol planet he meets briefly with Verisof between the latter’s running temple festivals for Lepold’s birthday. Keeping his identity secret, Hardin goes to the palace’s ballroom, but Wienis knows who he is and invites him to speak privately. Wienis suggests that Lepold might soon rule the Galaxy if the Foundation would help Anacreon demonstrate its scientific superiority, but Hardin says the Foundation can’t play favorites. Wienis announces there are armed guards outside and that the Imperial ship they helped repair (now called the flagship Wienis) has just left to attack the Foundation at that very moment. Hardin says he thought Wienis would wait until midnight, the moment of the king’s official coronation, and the time he set his counterstrike for: the priests of Anacreon will go on strike because attacking the Foundation is tantamount to sacrilege. Wienis goes out to the ballroom and watches as Lepold’s throne starts to rise (powered by a nuclear motor), but as midnight strikes, it stops and drops to the ground as all the lights go out. Someone tells Wienis that the palace is surrounded and that Verisof is outside demanding Hardin’s release and a stop to the attack on the Foundation. Hardin informs Wienis that the city has no functional power except in the temples, and when Wienis says he’ll have the army take over the temple, Hardin reminds him that he doesn’t have the working power to issue the command through the usual communication lines. Wienis says the ship is still on its way to destroy the Foundation, so the mob and loss of power make no difference. But Hardin had the ship outfitted with a “hyperwave relay.”

Theo Aparat is the priest attending the flagship Wienis, while Wienis’ son Prince Lefkin is the admiral officially in charge; Aparat can’t believe the ship is supposed to be used for something so wicked, and when midnight strikes, he sends a message to the ship’s entire crew about the sacrilege the commander plans to use the ship for, removes the blessing of the Galactic Spirit from it, and strips Lefkin of his command. Someone in a distant Temple opens an “ultrawave relay” that shuts the entire ship down. With some soldiers Aporat locates Lefkin, who tries to tell the soldiers to arrest Aporat and that the Galactic Spirit is fake, but they follow Aporat’s orders to arrest Lefkin for his blasphemy. Aporat makes Lefkin order the rest of the fleet to turn around. In Wienis’ office, then watch Lefkin announce their abdication of the mission on the televisor. Hardin explains the irony of the situation to Wienis with a fable:

“You see the analogy, I hope. In their anxiety to cement forever domination over their own people, the kings of the Four Kingdoms accepted the religion of science that made them divine; and that same religion of science was their bridle and saddle, for it placed the life blood of nuclear power in the hands of the priesthood—who took their orders from us, be it noted, and not from you. You killed the wolf, but could not get rid of the m—”

Wienis tries to order his soldiers to shoot Hardin with their atom blasters, but they won’t, so he takes a blaster himself and shoots at Hardin, who dons a forcefield that reflects the blast back to Wienis and kills him.

At the Time Vault this time, there’s a much bigger crowd. Harry Seldin appears and reveals that everything is going according to plan:

“According to our calculations, you have now reached domination of the barbarian kingdoms immediately surrounding the Foundation. Just as in the first crisis you held them off by use of the Balance of Power, so in the second, you gained mastery by use of the Spiritual Power as against the Temporal. … The Spiritual Power, while sufficient to ward off attacks of the Temporal, is not sufficient to attack in turn. Because of the invariable growth of the counteracting force known as Regionalism, or Nationalism, the Spiritual Power cannot prevail. I am telling you nothing new, I’m sure.”

He tells them they’re only at the start of their work and that a “vast tangled jungle of barbarism … extends around the entire breadth of the Galaxy.” He reminds them about the other Foundation on the other side of the Galaxy and says the problem is theirs to solve. Hardin assumes that the next time Seldon comes back he’ll be dead.

Part IV—The Traders

Limmar Ponyets receives a message on his “free-lance trade ship,” delivered by Les Gorm, that a fellow trader, Esker Gorov, has been imprisoned on Askone for interfering with local politics, a problem since Gorov is not really a trader, but a Foundation agent. After getting to Askone, Ponyets has to wait two weeks to see Askone’s Grand Master. Ponyets fails to convince him that the trader landing there was a mistake, and the Askonian ruler threatens to kill the trader; Ponyets convinces him to let him see Gorov to “Tend his Soul.” Gorov tells Ponyets, who apparently has some past beef with him, that the Grand Master wants gold, and to get it from the Foundation. Ponyets says Gorov will just try again, which Gorov confirms: “‘It’s my assignment to sell nucleics to Askone.’”

Ponyets was nodding. “This I realize. And any system that doesn’t accept nuclear gadgets can never be placed under our religious control—”

“And can therefore become a focal point for independence and hostility. Yes.”

Gorov explains they won’t accept the devices because of their form of ancestor worship, but that if he can get key people to accept the devices they might push for change of the laws. Ponyets said they shouldn’t have gotten a diplomat like Gorov to try this, but an actual trader like him, and implies that he will try to sell them his cargo. He takes a week making a transmutation machine he shows the Grand Master and his councilors, turning two iron buckles into gold and arguing that they can take the gold itself even if the ancestors haven’t blessed the machine, though one councilor, Pherl, tries to argue this means the gold is tainted. Ponyets convinces them to leave the gold buckles out on an altar to the ancestors to see if anything happens to show their disapproval. A week later, he goes to see Pherl and tries to make a deal with him to buy the transmuter, though Pherl will have to use it in secret from the population who thinks it’s evil. Pherl says he’ll pay a week after he’s had it or he’ll have Ponyets executed the next day. In the next chapter, Gorov is released, and as he and Ponyets fly away from Askone in their ships, Ponyets tells him over the “tight, distortion-bounded ether-beam” that he rigged the transmuter from a “food irradiation chamber” and that it will only work temporarily, but will last long enough to buy Pherl the next election. Gorov thinks he’s only succeeded in getting them to accept gold when what they needed was to accept the mechanism. Ponyets points out that they have Pherl’s private navy escorting them away from Askone and they’re actually going to Pherl’s estates on the outskirts, where they’re going to stock up on tin, which he’s taking from Pherl not just in exchange for the transmuter but:

For my entire cargo of nucleics.”      

Ponyets then explains that Pherl took the transmuter, a crime on Askone, with the idea that if he got caught he could claim to the Grand Master he did it out of patriotic motives to set up Ponyets. But Ponyets then recorded Pherl using the transmuter with a “microfilm-recorder,” which Pherl had no idea existed. When he showed the footage to Pherl and threatened to show it to the whole city, Pherl offered him whatever he wanted. Pherl’s also slated to be the next Grand Master, which is promising for the Foundation since he’ll probably start using the devices he bought to recoup his losses.

Part V—The Merchant Princes

Jorane Sutt thinks they’re approaching another Seldon crisis and enlists the trader Hober Mallow from Smyrno to go to the Korellian Republic to see if he can find out if they have nuclear power, since three trade ships have disappeared in the vicinity of the Republic and it seems like only someone with such power could have overtaken them. Then we see Sutt later talking to Publis Manlio, a “primate” since he holds the office of “the primacy,” about how he’s duping Mallow and considers the traders a domestic threat that, combined with facing enemies that might have nuclear power, would constitute the third Seldon crisis; Sutt says it’s Manlio’s job to deal with the problem of the traders. Then we see Mallow talking to Jaim Twer about how the Actionist party (started by Sermak) is breaking up, and Twer wants Mallow to help finish it off but Mallow says he’s leaving. Twer thinks Mallow’s being sent on a secret mission to deal with the third Seldon crisis is a trick, but then agrees to go with him.

Korrell is past the phase of Empire but its Commdor keeps a tight reign on traders and missionaries, preventing the age of the Foundation from starting there. When Mallow and his crew land, they’re kept waiting for a week, and then Mallow’s men let a Foundation missionary who’s been injured on board. As the missionary, Jord Parma, is babbling incoherently about the Galactic Spirit, Mallow’s lieutenant reports that there’s a mob of Korellians outside the ship; they want Parma and Mallow hands him over against Twer’s protests. He explains to Twer that he sensed a trap, and then gets a message of invitation from Commdor Asper that seems to confirm it was a test he succeeded in passing. Mallow tries to get the Commdor, who prides himself on being “Well-Loved,” to consider Free Trade between their nations, but the Commdor says they can’t do it on the Foundation’s terms of including “compulsory religion,” and cites the case of Askone, “‘now an integral member of the Foundation’s system.’” Mallow says his religion is money, that missionaries annoy him, and that he can make the Commdor rich. He has the Commdor fetch a girl to demonstrate a glowing cloak, and convinces him they can both be rich if he buys stuff from him, because he can sell it at a high markup. The Commdor invites Mallow and all his men to dinner that night, and we see the Commdor talking to his wife, who complains about how he doesn’t make enough money. He gives her the glowing cloak and she shuts up. Then we see a conversation between Mallow and Twer about how they’re letting Mallow into the town’s steel foundry (so he can show them a steel-manipulating device they might buy) too easily, which means they probably don’t have nuclear power there. But when they do go and he demonstrates the pipe-fusing device, he notices that the soldiers have atomic guns, and that they have uniforms with the old Galactic Empire’s emblem on them, the “Spaceship-and-Sun.” Mallow is happy that the Empire “was emerging again, out into the Periphery.” Mallow leaves Senior Lieutenant Drawt in charge of his ship the Far Star and leaves the ship in a “lifeboat.”

He goes to the house of a man named Onum Barr on the planet of Siwena to ask directions to “the center of the government”; Barr informs him that Siwena is no longer the capital of the Imperial Sector. He asks if Mallow knows anything that’s happened in the last 150 years and explains that it’s been a bad time and the provinces have become increasingly impoverished; he insults the current viceroy. Under a former viceroy, Siwena rebelled against the Empire and had its population subjected to a nuclear blast. Barr only escaped because he was too old to pose a threat, but all of his sons died except for one who joined the force of the new admiral. He points out that Mallow is wearing a “force-shield” and that he knows that a portable atomic force-shield has not been invented; he thinks Mallow might be one of the “magicians” he heard tales of long ago (these magicians are presumably Foundation men using nuclear power). Mallow asks if Siwena has nuclear power and Barr says there are generators, but that he won’t be able to get near them without getting shot, that only “tech-men” can enter power stations. When Mallow asks directions to the nearest city with a power station, Barr offers him his passport to use as ID and tells him to talk as little as possible or he’ll arouse suspicion.

Mallow then meets a tech-man he offers gifts, but the tech-man is suspicious that religion will be the string attached to them and threatens to report Mallow, who then tells him he has something the Emperor doesn’t. He tells the tech-man to shoot him, demonstrating the power of his portable shield. He gives the shield to the tech-man, who can’t believe its power source is the size of a walnut, and when the man threatens to keep the shield and shoot Mallow, Mallow says he has another shield, and a weapon designed to pierce the shield he just gave the tech-man, so the tech-man complies with his demand to let him see a generator, which the man says are built for an eternity, revealing that he doesn’t have the capability to fix any problems with it should they arise.

Some time later, Mallow is at his new house with Ankor Jael, whom he enlists to help him get a council seat, which he knows Jorane Sutt will strongly oppose. Sutt then shows up at the house, saying that the report Mallow turned in months ago about what he did in Korell was incomplete, since in the interim Mallow has opened a bunch of factories and moved into a palace, raising suspicions about where his money came from. Mallow explains he got the money from the Commdor of Korell in a legitimate trade deal; when Sutt says this wasn’t in his report, Mallow says it was not relevant to his mission of looking for the missing ships and signs of atomic power. Sutt says traders are supposed to advance religion with their trades, but Mallow says he follows the law, not custom, that the religion-spreading policy is outdated, and that no planets outside of the Periphery will let traders in because they’ve heard the stories from Askone about religious takeovers:

“If nuclear power makes them dangerous, a sincere friendship through trade will be many times better than an insecure overlordship, based on the hated supremacy of a foreign spiritual power, which, once it weakens ever so slightly, can only fall entirely and leave nothing substantial behind except an immortal fear and hate.”

Sutt tries to convince him with bribes to change his convictions about foreign policy, and when Mallow refuses, Sutt threatens to arrest him for the murder of a Foundation priest, the one he handed over to the mob on Korell. Jael speculates that Sutt knows the religious policy is no longer effective and that he’s only defending it for some self-serving purpose.

“Now any dogma, primarily based on faith and emotionalism, is a dangerous weapon to use on others, since it is almost impossible to guarantee that the weapon will never be turned on the user.”

Jael speculates that Sutt

“…could mobilize the various hierarchies on the subject planets against the Foundation in the name of orthodoxy…planting himself at the head of the standards of the pious [to] make war on heresy, as represented by you, for instance, and make himself king eventually.”

Mallow says he needs to get on the council to fight Sutt, but Jael is worried Sutt will ruin Mallow’s chances of doing so by spreading what Mallow did to the priest. We then see Mallow’s trial at the point when he gets to testify. He confirms that the story the prosecution told about what happened with the priest was accurate, but says it’s incomplete. He reviews the conversations he had with Sutt sending him on the Korell mission, and the one he had with Jaim Twer right afterward asking him to run for a council seat, saying he suspected ulterior motives in both—for Sutt, to get rid of him, and when Twer didn’t know what a Seldon crisis was, Mallow figured he wasn’t a trader as he claimed, but was trained in holy orders and possibly a priest, since priests learn of Seldon as a prophet instead of a psychohistorian. He figured that meant Twer was actually a spy for Sutt, so invited him along to keep an eye on him. He set up a “Visual Record receiver” to record what happened with the priest, and plays this in the courtroom. He shares his observations about the oddities of the mob coming out of nowhere and points out that the prosecution has said nothing about the person of the missionary priest, Jord Parma, and freezes a frame of the recording when ultraviolet light was flashed, revealing a tattoo on Parma’s wrist that says “KSP”—Korellian Secret Police, proving that Mallow was set up. The crowd starts cheering “Long live Mallow.” Some time later, Mallow tells Jael to have Sutt and Manlio arrested for “‘inciting the priesthood of the outer planets to take sides in the factional quarrels of the Foundation’” to get them out of the way for his election. He says he needs to simultaneously be in the office of mayor and high priest when the Seldon crisis comes because he’s the only one who knows how to handle it—by doing nothing.

We then see a scene of the Korellian Commdor talking to his wife again three years after Mallow’s visit about how she wants him to make war against the Foundation; he says there is war between them. Then there’s a quick scene of an officer on a small Foundation ship encountering a much bigger ship with the emblem of the Empire on it. We then see Mallow two years into his mayoralty, and Jael worried about “Sutt and his Religionists” and how Mallow’s policy of doing nothing after they’ve reached a stalemate with Korell is not appealing to the mob. Sutt again wants Mallow to return to the religious policy, but Mallow maintains that trade alone is strong enough for their needs. He says Korell, though currently not trading with them due to the war, has become increasingly dependent on nuclear devices and that the Commdor won’t be able to hold out once the generators stop and big industries start to fail. Sutt says they can just get new generators from the Empire, but Mallow points out those would be gigantic, while the Foundation’s had to develop tiny ones because of their lack of metal. He says the Commdor “‘won’t stand up against the economic depression that will sweep all Korell in two or three years.’” Sutt says that if Mallow made some kind of deal with the Empire to betray the Foundation then he’d be doing everything he’s doing now. Mallow has Sutt arrested for not cooperating. Jael is worried about a popular rebellion as a response, but Mallow is confident that economic control will work, because he controls all the factories, and he says that where it looks like Sutt’s religious propaganda is succeeding, he’ll make sure prosperity fails. Jael concludes that Mallow is “‘making us a land of traders and merchant princes,’” and asks what this means for the future. Mallow says it’s up to his successors to figure that problem out, as he’s figured out the current problem. An Encyclopedia Galactica entry confirms that Korell surrenders and Mallow becomes a famous Foundation figure like Hari Seldon and Salvor Hardin. THE END.

The scope of the plot that Asimov has taken on is incredibly ambitious, unfolding in this book over a period that spans nearly two centuries. The structure he uses to tackle this span is essentially dividing it up into Parts that each stand alone as a potential novella. Each of the novella’s individual arcs contribute to the main arc of the Foundation’s progress. While Seldon is a character who’s referred to throughout the novel, he only appears as a living, breathing character in Part I. He gets Time Vault cameos in Parts II and III, then his likeness fades entirely. Salvor Hardin is the only main character who actually appears alive in more than one Part, getting to tackle the first Seldon Crisis in Part II and the second Seldon Crisis in Part III. After that, he, too, vanishes except in name. This structure could make the book difficult for a certain type of reader, the type who likes to get invested in character. By the time we get to Part IV, we have to attach ourselves to characters who have thenceforth not appeared at all, and acclimate ourselves to a completely new situation. Asimov demands that our interest be invested in a different type of character, that of the Foundation itself; this is the only character we can really remain invested in across the sections, but the stakes are high enough that he pulls this off. This book is about the future of the human race, and as such cannot narrow its focus to just one human.  

The “series of crises” that Seldon mentions the first time his Vault opens provides the book’s structure, specifically the episodes that each novella will explore. In Part I, we see the inception of the Foundation and its Terminus headquarters. In Part II, we see the first threat to the Foundation’s establishment from the surrounding barbarian kingdoms, which is the first crisis, resulting in the development of a longer-term strategy to deal with such threats: turning science into a religion. (By training priests how to manipulate nuclear devices but not actually explaining how they work, Hardin mirrors Seldon’s strategy of not letting any actual psychologists onto Terminus who might be able to figure out the real plan.) In Part III, there’s another threat from one of the barbarian kingdoms, the second crisis, which is handled by manipulating the science-as-religion policy established in the wake of the first crisis, proving this policy’s utility. In Part IV, the only besides Part I that doesn’t explicitly constitute a “Seldon crisis,” the science-as-religion policy is starting to deteriorate as those from Terminus try to use it to spread the Foundation’s reach farther than the four surrounding kingdoms; science is actually used as the predominant instrument of force when Ponyets uses it (in the form of the technology of the video recorder) to manipulate the Askone councilor to violate his religion. In Part V, we see the third Seldon crisis, in which the science-as-religion foreign policy is officially overthrown, and economic control instilled in its place. We sense that, with time, this policy will also eventually become ineffective (or will it?), and some future crisis will necessitate the evolution of a new type of foreign policy for the Foundation to continue to spread its influence.

By making the Foundation itself the main character, Asimov puts the reader in the position of rooting for one entity to spread its influence across this entire galaxy; it is the spread of this influence that is the strategy to stave off the dark period that will follow the Empire’s fall. That is, Asimov has put the reader in the position of supporting an expansionist foreign policy, and, as with Ender’s Game, one wonders what parallels there are here for American foreign policy; it seems to be these ongoing, mutating parallels that make this book still relevant decades later. We as Americans tend to believe that when we interfere with the workings of other nations, it’s for the sake of doing something good, as the Foundation’s ultimate mission is supposedly benevolent. But is it really? When Seldon claims that the galaxy is a “‘vast tangled jungle of barbarism,’” this attitude seems similar to that of Americans advocating for an expansionist and/or interfering foreign policy, but perhaps experience has taught some of us that this attitude derives from not understanding and appreciating cultural differences. Only reading the rest of the Foundation series will reveal if the spreading of the Foundation is as benevolent a mechanism as it’s originally supposed to be.

If dividing the plot into novellas is one structural strategy, the use of dialog is another. The vast majority of the text is in fact comprised of dialog exchanges. Asimov frequently ends a Part without fully following the arc of the action he’s set up to its logical conclusion; instead, the reader learns what happened after the end of one Part in a dialog exchange in the next Part. Asimov somehow pulls this off without the dialog feeling contrived, maybe because he so meticulously creates the setting and scene of where the next phase of the action should be, and also because it feels natural that the politicians discussing these issues would describe these things in the context of the new situation in which they find themselves. Notably, Asimov never uses straight-up exposition to explain to the reader what’s happened in the intervals of jumped time. The structure feels like a stone skipping over water, landing briefly in a new period where circumstances have entirely changed.       

This book should be required reading for any politician, as the action is primarily comprised of moments of political intrigue. Seldon manipulates the aristocrats of the original Empire into letting him set up the Foundation. Hardin overthrows the antiquated Encyclopedists, brokers peace with the surrounding kingdoms by playing them off against each other, and establishes religion as a means of control. Ponyets blackmails a foreign ruler into buying his cargo and actually a lot more than that. Sutt has plans to use religion as a means to make himself king of many planets, but is outmaneuvered by Mallow, with his acute awareness of ulterior motives. Nuclear power is the device around which all of this political maneuvering largely centers. Those who control it control everyone else.

Something that’s notable about Asimov’s approach to otherworldly sci-fi elements is that, as per his utter lack of exposition, he doesn’t explain how anything actually works, such as Hari Seldon’s Time Vault, or the ultrawave relay that shuts down the flagship Wienis, or the hyperwave beam that allows a ship to communicate with a planet, or the nuclear force-shields that work from a generator the size of a walnut. This lack of explanation is particularly fitting because it coincides with the book’s plot: those who don’t know how these things work—particularly the nuclear things—are the ones who lack power. Only Foundation members actually know how these things work, and we, the readers, are not technically Foundation members. The Foundation spreads its influence by spreading its nuclear devices, or “nucleics” (a clever play on “electronics”) but they must maintain control over other entities’ use of these devices, or they might find the devices turned against them. As readers, we are further put in the position of the characters who do not know Hari Seldon’s ultimate plan. We’re figuring it out as the characters do.

The internal and external crises that are supposed to herald a Seldon crisis mirror an ideal fictional structure for tension. The internal crisis could be a parallel for a story’s chronic tension, while the external could be a parallel for acute tension. The internal and external crises come to a head at the same time, or the external (acute) causes the internal (chronic) to come to a head, until there’s only one fitting outcome for a character.

-SCR